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The quality of a carpenter's work is greatly affected by the tools and machinery he uses and their condition.

We have a special short course available on the subject of hand tools. You can use it to augment the material in this lesson. Give it a try sometime during your work for this lesson.   Go ...

2-1. Boring Tools

Types of Boring Tools. All wood-boring augers and drill bits, held by a brace or hand drill, are boring tools.

(1) Auger Bit. Auger bits come in sizes from 1/4 inch to 1 inch. The number on the tang shows the size of the bit in 1/16-inch increments. For example, in Figure 2-1 the number 6 means that it is 6/16 (or 3/8) inch. The marked part of the bit is used to start the hole. The spur is made like a screw, which pulls the bit into the wood as you turn the bit. The parts marked lip and nib are the cutting parts. The twist portion removes the shavings from the hole. The shank ends in a tang, which fits into the brace.

Figure 2-1. Auger bit

(2) Expansion Auger Bit. An expansion bit (Figure 2-2) is used to bore a hole larger than 1 inch, such as for a door lock. Notice that the cutting bit has a scale for adjusting the size of the hole needed. The screw shown is used to lock the cutting blade into position. The screw must be tightened to keep the blade from moving and changing the size of the hole. This bit also has a tang to fit into the hand brace.

Figure 2-2. Expansion auger bit

(3) Twist Drill. A twist drill is used to make holes in wood, metal, fiber, plastic, and other materials. Carpenters often drill holes in metal to which some type of wood or fiber will be bolted. This requires the use of a special type of twist drill (Figure 2-3). Twist drill bits are driven by electric or hand drills (Figure 2-4).

Figure 2-3. Twist drills

Figure 2-4. Electric and hand drills

(4) Countersink Bit. A countersink bit is used to increase the diameter of the top of a drilled hole to receive the head of a screw (Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5. Countersink bit

 Care and Use of Boring Tools. To cut a clean, splinter-free hole, the cutting parts must be kept sharp. The spur must be kept sharp so that it will pull the bit into the wood. The lip must be kept sharp to prevent tearing of the material being bored. Because these are all sharp edges, the lip should be protected from damage through contact with other tools. Bits should be stored a special case, or the point wrapped with a rag to protect the cutting edges.

2-2. Tooth-Cutting Tools.

Both manually operated saws and power saws are tooth-cutting tools.

Types of Tooth-Cutting Tools. Manually operated saws used by carpenter's are mainly the crosscut saw, ripsaw, compass saw, coping saw, hacksaw, and miter saw.

(1) Crosscut Saw. A crosscut saw (handsaw) (Figure 2-6) is designed to cut across the grain of the wood. Its teeth are sharpened like a knife so they will cut the fibers of the wood on each side of the saw cuts (or kerf). A crosscut saw is 20 to 26 inches long and has 8 to 12 teeth per inch. The number of teeth per inch is stamped on the blade near the handle.

Figure 2-6. Crosscut saw

(2) Ripsaw. This saw is used to cut with (or parallel to) the grain of the wood. The teeth of a ripsaw (Figure 2-7) are a series of little chisels set in two parallel rows. On each full stroke of the saw, the edges chisel off a little from the end of the wood fibers. This cut is also called a kerf.

Figure 2-7. Ripsaw teeth

(3) Compass Saw. The compass saw (Figure 2-8) has 10 points to the inch. It may be equipped with a blade (with 13 points to the inch) for cutting nails. Its main function is cutting holes and openings such as electrical outlets, where a power tool would be too large.

Figure 2-8. Compass saw

(4) Coping Saw. The blade of a coping saw can be turned to change the direction of the cut or to cut sharp angles. This saw is also used for cutting curved surfaces and circles. Coped joints are sometimes used when joining moldings at right angles. One piece of stock is cut away to receive the molded surface of the other piece (Figure 2-9).

Figure 2-9. Coping saw and coped joint

(5) Hacksaw. This saw is 10 to 12 inches long; it has 14 to 32 points per inch (Figure 2-10). It is used to cut metal, such as metal trim or aluminum thresholds. It should not be used to cut wood.

WARNING

Do not use the hacksaw with heavy pressure for a long period; stop and let the blade cool. If the blade gets too hot, it will break.

Figure 2-10. Hacksaw

(6) Miter Saw. A miter saw is used with a miter box. The saw is held in a horizontal position and can be adjusted to cut various angles. It is used to cut moldings and picture frames to fit. It can be adjusted to cut at right angles for small pieces of wood. To cut a piece of molding to a specified angle: set the saw to the prescribed angle, insert the piece in the proper position against the fence, and move the saw back and forth across the material (Figure 2-11).

Figure 2-11. Miter saw

 Care and Use of Cutting Tools. Cutting tools, like boring tools, have sharp edges and points, which need to be sharpened and protected. The term sharpen is used here in a broad sense to include all of the operations required to put a saw in first-class condition. The master carpenter is an expert in using the right tool in the right way.

(1) Jointing. When a saw comes from the factory, the teeth are all uniform in size, length, bevel, pitch, and set. After being used and sharpened a few times, the teeth become distorted. When this occurs, they must be filed to a straight line. This operation is called jointing (Figure 2-12). When you joint a saw, place it in a saw vise with the handle to the left. Starting with the heel end of the saw, lay a flat file on top of the teeth and move it lightly along the top of the teeth. Do not top the file. Continue this operation until all teeth are even, with a slight crown at the top of each tooth. If you find that the teeth are too short, which would make them hard to set, file them to the proper shape before they are set.

Figure 2-12. Jointing a saw

(2) Setting. After the teeth are made even by jointing, they must be set. This means that every tooth will be bent a little to give the blade sufficient clearance. For a handsaw, the set should be half the thickness of the blade. This rule applies to both crosscut saws and ripsaws. When using a saw set (Figure 2-13), bend every other tooth (halfway from the point), starting at either end of the saw. Do not attempt to hurry this operation; it takes skill and practice to do it properly.

Figure 2-13. Saw set

(3) Filing. To file a crosscut saw (Figure 2-14), place the saw securely in a saw vise with the handle to the left. Using a three-cornered file, start filing from the heel end. Place the file between two teeth and incline it toward the small or tapered end of the saw. File both teeth at once, using one or more strokes and putting the same pressure on each stroke. Work down the length of the saw, then turn the saw around so that the handle is to the right. Incline the file to the tapered end, which is now to the left, and again work down the length of the saw.

Figure 2-14. Filing a crosscut saw

(4) Beveling. To file a ripsaw, place the saw securely in a saw vise. File straight across the front of the teeth using a three-cornered file. Lower the file handle from 2 to 3 inches. This gives a bevel on the top of each tooth that leans away from you. File down the length of the saw, starting with the heel end and using the same amount of pressure on each stroke (Figure 2-15).

Figure 2-15. Beveling a ripsaw

(5) Side-Dressing. After you file the saw, lay it flat on a board and run the flat side of the file gently along the side of the teeth. Turn the saw over and repeat the operation on the other side. This is called side-dressing. No setting may be needed for the next two or three filings. In this case, side-dress with an oilstone to remove the burrs (Figure 2-16).

Figure 2-16. Side-dressing a saw

2-3. Sharp-Edged Cutting Tools.

Chisels are considered sharp-edged cutting tools. The chisel is an indispensable tool and is often the most abused. It should be used solely for cutting wood surfaces. It should never be used for prying or as a screwdriver. A chisel is a flat piece of steel (of varying thicknesses and widths) with one end ground to an acute bevel to form a cutting edge.

Types of Sharp-Edged Cutting Tools.

(1) Paring Chisel. A paring chisel (Figure 2-17) is used for shaping and preparing large surfaces. It is used with a steady sustained pressure of the hand and should never be driven with a mallet.

Figure 2-17. Paring chisel

(2) Firmer Chisel. The firmer chisel (Figure 2-18) is more substantial tool than the paring chisel. It is usually used for routine work, but may be used for paring or light mortising. When paring, drive the chisel by hand pressure. For light mortising, use a mallet.

Figure 2-18. Firmer chisel

CAUTION

Never use a hammer or metal tool to drive a chisel -- use wood to wood. This will help preserve the handles of your chisels.

(3) Framing Chisel. A framing (or mortise) chisel (Figure 2-19) is a heavy-duty tool, which is used for heavy work. These chisels have an iron ring fitted to the end of the handle to prevent splitting when it is struck with a heavy mallet.

Figure 2-19. Framing chisel

(4) Slick Chisel. Any chisel having a blade wider than 2 inches is called a slick chisel. Regular sizes range from 2 1/2 to 4 inches. They are used on large surfaces where there is considerable material to be removed or where unusual power is required.

Care and Use of Sharp-Edged Cutting Tools. For most effective use, keep all chisels properly ground and sharp. When chisels are not being used, keep them in a toolbox or other approved storage place such as a rack, to prevent dulling or nicking the cutting edges. To prevent rusting during storage, coat the metal portion of the chisel with light oil.

(1) Replacing the Wood Chisel Head. A wood chisel with a mushroomed head (Figure 2-20) should be replaced immediately, because a mallet can glance off its mushroomed surface easily and spoil the work surface or cause injury.

Note

A slightly battered wood handle can be smoothed with a wood rasp and sandpaper.

Figure 2-20. Mushroomed chisel head

(2) Whetting the Cutting Edge. The cutting edge of the wood chisel can be kept in shape by whetting it on an oilstone (Figure 2-21), unless its edge is nicked or the bevel has become too rounded with careless whetting. In this case, the chisel must be ground, taking care the bevel is ground straight. Keep the length of the bevel about two times the thickness of the unbeveled part of the blade.

Figure 2-21. Whetting a chisel cutting edge

(3) Grinding a Wood Chisel. To grind a wood chisel, first square the cutting edge. To do this, hold the chisel at a right angle to the grinding wheel with the bevel up and move it from side to side (Figure 2-22). Dip the chisel in water frequently to avoid loss of temper. Check the edge with a small square to be sure the edge is at a right angle to the sides of the blade.

Figure 2-22. Grinding a chisel cutting edge

(4) Restoring the Bevel. To restore the bevel, readjust the grinder tool rest to a position that will give the chisel the correct bevel (usually 30 degrees). Hold the bevel lightly against the wheel (Figure 2-23) and grind with the same side-to-side motion used in squaring the cutting edge. To avoid loss of temper, cool the chisel by dipping it in water during the sharpening process.

Figure 2-23. Restoring a bevel chisel cutting edge

(5) Grinding and Honing. Figure 2-24 shows a properly ground and properly honed chisel. Remember X should equal twice the width of Y.

Figure 2-24. Ground and honed chisel

2-4. Smooth Facing Tools.

Types. Smooth facing tools called planes, are sharp-edged cutting tools in which the cutting edge is guided by the body of the tool instead of by the hands. The place bit, for example, is positively guided by contact of the body of the tool with the work, giving a smooth cut in contrast to the rough cut made by hand-guided chisels.

(1) Hand Plane. A plane is a finishing tool used for smooth surfaces (Figure 2-25). It consists of a wood or iron stock or a combination of the two, with the cutting edge projecting from a slot on the underside. The cutter inclines backward and has a chip breaker in front to dispense the shavings. The plane is light and easy to use in finishing and bringing wood down to the desired thickness. Hold the plane with both hands and, with long strokes push it away from you.

Figure 2-25. Hand plane

(2) Block Plane. This is the smallest plane (Figure 2-26). It varies in length from 3 1/2 to 7 1/2 inches and can be used easily with one hand. Primarily, it is used for planing end grain or across the grain of wood. No chip breaker is needed to break the shavings because there are no shavings when planing across the grain.

Figure 2-26. Block plane

(3) Smoothing Plane. The smoothing plane is a short, finely set plane, which averages 12 inches in length (Figure 2-27). It is used for finishing uneven surfaces.

Figure 2-27. Smoothing plane

(4) Jointer Plane. This plane is the largest of the plane family (Figure 2-28). It varies in length from 20 to 24 inches. The great length of this plane makes it possible to smooth a large surface or to make the edge of a board true so that two such surfaced areas will fit closely together.

Figure 2-28. Jointer plane

 Care and Use.

(1) Sharpening Plane Bits. The length of the plane determines the straightness of the cut. If you keep your plane bits sharp, they will produce a true and smooth surface. To get the best service from your planes, the bit should be ground and honed properly. When grinding and honing plane bits, the same rules apply as for wood chisels. The cutting edge should be straight on jointer-, smoothing-, and block-plane bits and slightly curved on jack-plane bits.

(2) Using and Storing A Plane. Satisfactory results from a plane depend on how it is used. On the forward stroke, hold the plane flat on the surface to be planed. On the return stroke, lift the back of the plane so that the cutting edge does not rub against the blade. When the plane is not in use, place it on its side. For storage, withdraw the blade into the body of the plane. This helps keep the cutting edge sharp.

2-5. Rough Facing Tools.

Rough facing tools are called striking tools because the work is done by a series of strokes. The cut made by this method is rough compared to cuts made by other tools.

Hand Axe. The hand axe has a curved cutting edge and a long, flat-faced peen. It is sharpened with a bevel on each side of the blade. The broad hatchet and half hatchet are sometimes referred to as hand axes (Figure 2-29).

Figure 2-29. Hand axe

 Axe. This is similar to the hand axe but larger, with a long handle. As you can see in Figure 2-30, it is intended for heavy cutting and should be used with both hands. It is sharpened in the same manner as the hatchet.

Figure 2-30. Axe

2-6. Driving Tools.

Types of Driving Tools. Driving tools include such tools as claw hammers, tack hammers, and mallets, which are designed for specific uses; however, the one most frequently used is the claw hammer.

(1) Claw Hammer. The best claw hammers are made from the best steel, which is carefully forged, hardened, and tempered. Hammers differ in the shape of the claw-curved or straight-and in the shape of the face-flat or rounded. The style of the neck, the weight, and the general finish of claw hammers differ according to the intended use. Figure 2-31 shows straight and curved claw hammers. The average weight of claw hammers is 5 to 20 ounces. Good quality or high-grade hammers have hickory handles and are made from well-seasoned, straight-grained stock. Other hammers of good quality have steel handles with shock-absorbing rubber grips.

Figure 2-31. Claw hammers

(2) Mallets. Mallets are, in reality, wooden hammers. Although not considered a driving tool, they are used the same way as hammers. You will use mallets primarily for driving chisels and wedges. Depending on their use, mallets can vary in size from a few ounces to a few pounds. Many woodworkers make their own mallets to suit their personal touch. Figure 2-32 shows three types of mallets.

Figure 2-32. Mallets

 Care and Use of Driving Tools.

(1) Driving Nails. When you use driving nails with a claw hammer, guide the nail with one hand and grasp the hammer with the other down near the end of the handle. Avoid holding the hammer near the neck. Use a wrist motion, tapping the nail lightly to start it, then use a few sharp blows to finish driving the nail. After the nail has been driven, it can be set below the surface with a nail set. This prevents hammer marks or cat paws from marring the surface of the wood. Nail sets are made in several sizes. Figure 2-33 shows one type of nail set.

Figure 2-33. Nail set

(2) Removing Nails. Use the claw of the hammer to remove nails. To properly pull a nail, place a block under the claw for leverage. If the nail is large, use a nail puller or a wrecking bar (Figure 2-34).

Figure 2-34. Removing nails

2-7. Fastening Tools.

Fastening tools are used to join parts or materials together with screws or bolts. These tools include screwdrivers and wrenches.

Screwdrivers. There are many different types, shaped ends, and lengths of screwdrivers. The automatic screwdriver (Figure 2-35) is a labor and time saver, especially where great numbers of screws are to be driven. The bits for this tool come in different sizes for slotted and Phillips-head screws and can be changed to fit the different sizes of screws. The automatic screwdriver has a ratchet assembly, which you can adjust to drive or remove screws. You can also lock it in position and use it as an ordinary screwdriver.

Figure 2-35. Automatic screwdriver

 Phillips Screwdrivers. Phillips screwdrivers are used only for driving Phillips screws (Figure 2-36). Phillips screws have a head with two V-slots, which cross at the center. The tip of the Phillips screwdriver blade is shaped like a pointed or beveled cross to fit into these slots. This type of screwdriver cannot slip out of the slot, therefore preventing damage to expensive finishes.

Figure 2-36. Phillips screwdriver

2-8. Holding Tools.

Supporting Tools. Supporting tools consist of sawhorses or trestles used to support workers and materials. Figure 2-37 shows a pair of sawhorses, which you might use to support a piece of lumber that you are cutting.

Figure 2-37. Sawhorses

 Retaining Tools. Retaining tools consist of various types of clamps, which fall into the following general categories: C clamp, double-screw clamp, and bar clamp (Figure 2-38).

Figure 2-38. Clamps

Vises. Vises can be fitted to the top of a workbench, and some are adapted to slide underneath the top of the workbench. Most vises used by carpenters are fitted with wood between the jaws to protect the work from scars, dents, and scratches (Figure 2-39).

Figure 2-39. Vises

2-9. Leveling Tools.

Common Level. The common level (Figure 2-40) is used for both guiding and testing when bringing work to a horizontal or vertical position. The level has a long rectangular body of wood or metal, which has a built-in glass spirit tube on its side and near the end. Each tube contains a nonfreezing liquid with a small air bubble free to move within the tube. The side and end tubes are at right angles to each other. When you center the bubble of the side tube with the hairline, the level is horizontal; when you center the bubble of the end tube with the hairline, the level is vertical. By holding the level against a surface to be checked, you can determine whether the surface is truly level (or plumb). Levels should be hung up when not in use.

Figure 2-40. Common level

 Plumb Bo A plumb bob is made of metal, usually brass. It usually has a screw-type cap with a hole in the center. A string or plumb line is inserted through the hole and fastened inside. The bottom end has a point in direct line with the hole in the cap (Figure 2-41). The string is absolutely perpendicular to the horizontal when the plumb bob is suspended on it. It can be used for the same purpose as the plumb glass on a level; however, the plumb bob is not accurate when used in the wind.

Figure 2-41. Plumb bobs

Chalk Line. This is a strong, lightweight cord used to make a straight line between two widely separated points. To snap a straight line, rub chalk on a cord held taut between two points. Then pull the cord straight up from the center and release it, to allow it to spring back into place. Chalk lines come in metal or plastic cases. Figure 2-42 shows how to snap a chalk line.

Figure 2-42. Snapping a chalk line

2-10. Measuring Tools.

The most used and important tools that you must learn to use are those for measuring and layout work. Carpenter's measuring tools include rulers and tapes. Layout tools include various types of squares, dividers, and compasses and a marking gauge. The square is used for drawing angles. Dividers and compasses are used to scribe circles or transfer measurements. The carpenter's scribe is in the same class as a compass; it is used to scribe lines on building material for irregular joints. The marking gauge is used to mark lines parallel to a surface, an edge, or the end of a piece of lumber. Measuring and layout must be accurate; therefore, use a very sharp pencil or a knife blade.

When measuring, lay out your ruler or tape from your starting point and measure the distance called for by your plan. Place a mark opposite the required distance and square or angle the line as required by your layout.

Folding Rule. A folding rule is made from boxwood and has a concealed joint or rivet that holds it stiff and rigid when opened. Usually 6 feet in length, it is marked off in feet and inches and graduated in sixteenths of an inch. Figure 2-43 shows the folding rule most often used by carpenters.

Figure 2-43. Folding rule

 Steel Tape. In recent years, the flexible steel tape has been replacing the folding rule. It is also marked off in feet and inches and graduated in sixteenths of an inch. The flexible steel tape is housed in a metal casing with a spring attachment, which retracts the tape into the casing when the end is released. This type of rule is best because of its compactness and suitability for taking inside measurements (Figure 2-44).

Figure 2-44. Steel tape

2-10. Framing Square.

Much could be written about the framing square because of its many uses. However, we will cover only the correct nomenclature (names of terms and symbols) of its parts and the tasks for which it can be used.

In construction work, especially in house framing, the framing square is an invaluable tool and has a use that is common to all squaring devices. It is used for checking the squareness of building materials and for the squaring or angling of a mark placed on the building material. One arm of the square is placed against the edge or face of the building material. The other arm, with measuring units on it, is placed next to the desired mark on the building material. A line is then drawn across the material to the desired length or depth. It can also be used as a calculating machine, a means of solving mathematical problems. You will use it for laying out common, valley, hip, jack, and cripple rafters in roof construction and for laying out stringers for steps.

Figure 2-45 shows the framing square and its principal parts. The body of the square is the wider and longer member the tongue is the shorter and narrower member. The face is the side visible both on the body and the tongue when the square is held with the tongue in the left hand and the body pointing to the right. The various markings on a square are scales and tables. The square most generally used is one with a 16-inch tongue and a 24-inch body.

Figure 2-45. Framing square

Try Square. The try square (Figure 2-46) is so called because of frequent use as a testing tool when squaring up wood stock. It consists of a steel blade 8 inches long at right angle to the stock, which is usually made of hardwood and faced with brass to preserve the wood from damage. The blade usually has a scale divided into eighths of an inch.

Figure 2-46. Try square

 Miter Square. The term miter means any angle except a right angle, but as applied to squares mean an angle of 45 degrees (Figure 2-47). It is similar to a try square, but the stock of a miter square has an angle or 45 degree set in the stock. When using the miter square, the 45 degrees face of the stock is placed against the edge of a board; then the blade will be at a 45 degree angle with the edge of the board. The scale on the blade is divided into eighths of an inch.

Figure 2-47. Miter square

Combination Square. A combination square does the work of a rule, square, depth gauge, and level (Figure 2-48). The name combination square indicates that you can use it as a try or miter square. It differs from the try and miter squares in appearance, and you can move the head to any desired position on the blade. The head slides in a groove located in the center of the blade. This groove also permits removal of the head so that the blade may be used as a rule or a straightedge. A spirit level is installed in the head, permitting it to be used as a level. A centering head, which can be substituted for the head, is used to locate the center of shafts or other cylindrical pieces. A scriber is also inserted in the head to be used for laying out work. The protractor head is used to set different angles. In the construction of this tool, the blade is hardened to prevent the corners from wearing round and detracting from its value as a measuring instrument.

Figure 2-48. Combination square

2-11. Sharpening and Smoothing Tools.

Two main types of tools are used to sharpen and smooth other tools: stones and files.

Grindstones. Most bench grinders found in carpentry shops are equipped with two grinding wheels: one of coarse grit and one with fine grit. Grinding wheels are held to the shaft by nuts, which squeeze the wheel between two special side washers. Grinding wheels are also rated by the turning speed they can withstand. Be sure you use stones made to withstand the rated revolutions per minute of the grinder electric motor. A tool rest is attached to the grinder frame and is adjustable for height as well as for distance from the stone. Most grinders are equipped with heavy-duty glass guards to permit watching as you grind. If there is no eye guard, you must wear safety goggles to protect your eyes. It is considered poor practice to use the side of the wheel for grinding. When the surface of the stone becomes irregular or filled with metal particles, use a stone dressing tool (Figure 2-49) to restore a good grinding surface. A water container, attached to the base of the grinder, is used for cooling parts being ground. Always cool the blades of tools you are sharpening to prevent destroying the temper of the metal with the excess heat generated from grinding. Heavy grinding is done on the coarse wheel, and light or finish-type grinding is done on the fine grit stone. Most cutting edges should be finished by hand, using a fine oilstone.

Figure 2-49. Grindstone

 Oilstones. Oilstones are used after the grinding operation to give a tool the keen, sharp edge required for smooth cutting (Figure 2-50).

Figure 2-50. Oilstone

Artificial Stones. These stones have coarse, medium, or fine grades. Coarse stones are used for general work where fast cutting is required. Medium stones are used for sharpening tools that do not require a keen edge. They are recommended for sharpening tools that are used for working softwoods. Fine stones are used where a keen edge is desired. Cabinetmakers whose tools require a very fine, keen edge use the fine type of stone.

Files and Rasps. A file is a steel instrument used for cutting and smoothing metal and wood. A rasp is a very coarse file that differs from an ordinary file in teeth size and shape. Figure 2-51 shows the types of files. Wood files are usually tempered to work lead or brass; they should not be used on any harder surface. When using a file, never allow it to drag on the backward stroke; it cuts only on the forward stroke. When using a rasp, fix the work firmly in a vise and grasp the rasp in both hands, with one hand holding and the other applying a light pressure to the rod (Figure 2-52).

Figure 2-51. Files and rasps

Figure 2-52. Using a rasp

2-12. Pulling Tools.

Pulling tools are used for pulling nails, for prying, and for lifting. They are also used extensively for dismantling buildings, crates, boxes, and other wood products. They include nail pullers and wrecking bars.

Nail Pullers. Nail pullers (Figure 2-53) are used for removing nails, especially those that are driven flush or below the surface of wood. A nail puller has two jaws that set over the nailhead. Pressure is applied by a series of bows from the sleeve. The sleeve, which fits over the handle and slides up and down, is usually equipped with a guard to protect your hand from the sliding sleeve. The average length of a nail puller is 18 inches.

Figure 2-53. Nail puller

 Wrecking Bars. Wrecking bars are usually made of forged, tempered steel. They are hexagonal in shape, with a curved, slotted neck for pulling large nails. The average length is 24 to 36 inches. They are used to dismantle and tear down wooden structures. A bar of the same type without a curved neck is called a pinch bar. It use is similar to that of a wrecking bar. Figure 2-54 shows the types of wrecking bars.

Figure 2-54. Wrecking bars

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015