Exercises for Lesson 3
1. Microscopic examination of urinary sediment is clinically important because
- a. Such examination can quickly identify the constituents of calculi present in the sample.
- b. It can provide valuable information that enables the physician to diagnose renal and other abnormalities.
- c. Bacteria contaminating the sample can be identified in order that proper antibiotic therapy can be instituted by the physician.
- d. Cloudy urine always reveals clinically significant elements under microscopic examination.
2. Which of the following best describes the basic technique, which should be used to prepare a urine sample for microscopic examination?
- a. The urine sample is shaken well and small volumes of it are examined using the 10X objective.
- b. The urine sample is well mixed and then centrifuged prior to its microscopic examination.
- c. The urine sample is well mixed and 15 milliliters of the sample are centrifuged. Only the bottom contents of the tube are examined microscopically.
- d. Approximately 15 milliliters of the sample are centrifuged and carefully examined under the microscope.
3. Which of the following are organized structures found in urine sediment?
- a. Red blood cells.
- b. White blood cells.
- c. Epithelial cells.
- d. All of the above.
4. Casts in the urine are clinically significant because.
- a. Their presence in the urine usually indicates some pathological change in the kidney.
- b. The casts tend to be formed when the urine is very dilute or alkaline.
- c. The presence of these casts usually indicates the patient has proteinuria.
- d. Casts are gelatinous products that can cause serious damage by occluding the kidney tubules.
5. What is the clinical significance of epithelial cell casts?
- a. These casts indicate the patient has a severe infection of the kidney.
- b. These casts are found in acute glomerulonephritis and septicemias.
- c. These casts can signify tubular degeneration.
- d. These cells usually signify the end stage of severe renal disease and approaching renal failure.
6. Which of the following is the best description of calcium oxalate crystals?
- a. Yellow crystals which are divergent in shape and size and can be found in 16 percent of patients who have gout.
- b. Granular crystals, which are brick-red and can be dissolved by gentle heating of the urine.
- c. Crystals, which are colorless and have the form of long needles or elongated prisms.
- d. Crystals commonly found in acid urine, which are usually the result of a diet rich in oxalic acid.
7. Which of the following is the best description of sulfadiazine crystals?
- a. These crystals exist in the form of transparent bars or needles.
- b. These crystals exist in the form of "shocks of wheat" with the binding toward one end.
- c. These crystals exist in the form of "shocks of wheat" with central binding.
- d. These crystals appear as needles or plates.
8. A cast is best defined as
- a. A proteinaceous product of the renal tubules, which is often shaped in the form of the tubules.
- b. A gelatinous secretion produced by the renal tubules which is often found in the urine of healthy persons.
- c. A gelatinous substance, which causes a marked decrease in urine flow.
- d. A proteinaceous mold of the renal tubules which is formed when the urine is very acidic.
9. Below is a microscopic view of sediment found in a urine sample. Select the name of the sediment shown.
- a. Simple.
- b. Hyaline cast.
- c. Granular casts.
- d. Cylindroids.
10. Below is a microscopic view of some sediment found in a urine sample. Select the name of the sediment shown.
- a. Sodium urate crystals.
- b. Calcium sulfate crystals.
- c. Amorphous urate crystals.
- d. Uric acid crystals.
11. Below is a microscopic view of some sediment found in a urine sample. Select the name of the sediment shown.
- a. Sulfaguanidine crystals.
- b. Sulfanilamide crystals.
- c. Sodium urate crystals.
- d. Triple phosphate crystals
12. While performing a microscopic examination of a urine sample you observe several small, colorless spheres which have a dumbbell shape. How would you report the sediment?
- a. Ammonium urate crystals.
- b. Calcium carbonate crystals.
- c. Triple phosphate crystals.
- d. Tyrosine crystals.
13. While performing a microscopic examination of a urine sample you observe several colorless and semitransparent structures with cylindrical bodies that have parallel sides and rounded ends. How would you report these? a. Waxy casts. b. Red blood cell casts. c. Epithelial cell casts. d. Hyaline casts.
Answers to Exercise for Lesson 3