the process of constructing a building or
infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing
in that manufacturing typically involves mass production
of similar items without a designated purchaser, while
construction typically takes place on location for a
known client. Construction as an industry comprises six
to nine percent of the gross domestic product of
developed countries. Construction starts with planning,
design, and financing; and continues until the project
is built and ready for use.
requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. An
architect normally manages the job, and a construction
manager, design engineer, construction engineer or
project manager supervises it. For the successful
execution of a project, effective planning is essential.
Those involved with the design and execution of the
infrastructure in question must consider zoning
requirements, the environmental impact of the job, the
successful scheduling, budgeting, construction-site
safety, availability and transportation of building
materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused
by construction delays and bidding, etc. The largest
construction projects are referred to as megaprojects.
In general, there are three sectors of construction:
buildings, infrastructure and industrial. Building
construction is usually further divided into residential
and non-residential (commercial/institutional).
Infrastructure is often called heavy/highway, heavy
civil or heavy engineering. It includes large public
works, dams, bridges, highways, water/wastewater and
utility distribution. Industrial includes refineries,
process chemical, power generation, mills and
|This work is an adaptation of a Wikipedia entry under the
terms of Creative Commons 4.0
This adaptation is available under the same terms.