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Minerals, Rocks, and the Rock Cycle
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"A rock is an aggregate of mineral grains, fragments of previously existing rock, or a mass of natural glass. Rocks can form in a variety of ways—through freezing of a melt, by cementation of loose grains, by precipitation from water solutions, or from changes that happen in response to temperature and pressure underground. Geologists can identify rocks and interpret aspects of Earth’s history by studying two principal characteristics of rocks: rock composition (the identity of minerals or glass that make up a rock) and rock texture (the dimensions and shape of grains, and the ways that grains are arranged, oriented, and held together)."

From: Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology
by Ludman and Marshak