General Composition of Matter

Our understanding of electrical current must begin with the nature of matter. All matter is composed of molecules. All molecules are made up of atoms, which are themselves made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons.

Matter

Matter can be defined as anything that has mass and has volume and is the substance of which physical objects are composed. Essentially, it is anything that can be touched. Mass is the amount of matter in a given object. Typically, the more matter there is in an object the more mass it will have. Weight is an indirect method of determining mass but not the same. The difference between mass and weight is that weight is determined by how much something or the fixed mass is pulled by gravity. Categories of matter are ordered by molecular activity. The four categories or states are: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. For the purposes of the aircraft technician, only solids, liquids, and gases are considered.

Element

An element is a substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler form by chemical means. Iron, gold, silver, copper, and oxygen are examples of elements. Beyond this point of reduction, the element ceases to be what it is.

Compound

A compound is a chemical combination of two or more elements. Water is one of the most common compounds and is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

The Molecule

The smallest particle of matter that can exist and still retain its identity, such as water (H2O), is called a molecule. A molecule of water is illustrated in Figure 1. Substances composed of only one type of atom are called elements. But most substances occur in nature as compounds, that is, combinations of two or more types of atoms. It would no longer retain the characteristics of water if it were compounded of one atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen. If a drop of water is divided in two and then divided again and again until it cannot be divided any longer, it will still be water.

Figure 1. A water molecule.

The Atom

The atom is considered to be the most basic building block of all matter. Atoms are composed of three subatomic particles. These three sub-atomic particles are: protons, neutrons, and electrons. These three particles will determine the properties of the specific atoms. Elements are substances composed of the same atoms with specific properties. Oxygen is an example of this. The main property that defines each element is the number of neutrons, protons, and electrons. Hydrogen and helium are examples of elements. Both of these elements have neutrons, protons, and electrons but differ in the number of those items. This difference alone accounts for the variations in chemical and physical properties of these two different elements. There are over a 100 known elements in the periodic table, and they are categorized according to their properties on that table. The kinetic theory of matter also states that the particles that make up the matter are always moving. Thermal expansion is considered in the kinetic theory and explains why matter contracts when it is cool and expands when it is hot, with the exception of water/ice.

Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons

At the center of the atom is the nucleus, which contains the protons and neutrons. The protons are positively charged particles, and the neutrons are a neutrally charged particle. The neutron has approximately the same mass as the proton. The third particle of the atom is the electron that is a negatively charged particle with a very small mass compared to the proton. The protonís mass is approximately 1,837 times greater than the electron. Due to the proton and the neutron location in the central portion of the atom (nucleus) and the electronís position at the distant periphery of the atom, it is the electron that undergoes the change during chemical reactions. Since a proton weighs approximately 1,845 times as much as an electron, the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus determines the overall weight of an atom. The weight of an electron is not considered in determining the weight of an atom. Indeed, the nature of electricity cannot be defined clearly because it is not certain whether the electron is a negative charge with no mass (weight) or a particle of matter with a negative charge.

Hydrogen represents the simplest form of an atom, as shown in Figure 2. At the nucleus of the hydrogen atom is one proton and at the outer shell is one orbiting electron. At a more complex level is the oxygen atom, as shown in Figure 3, which has eight electrons in two shells orbiting the nucleus with eight protons and eight neutrons. When the total positive charge of the protons in the nucleus equals the total negative charge of the electrons in orbit around the nucleus, the atom is said to have a neutral charge.

Figure 2. Hydrogen atom.

 

Figure 3. Oxygen atom.

Electron Shells and Energy Levels

Electrons require a certain amount of energy to stay in an orbit. This particular quantity is called the electronís energy level. By its motion alone, the electron possesses kinetic energy, while the electronís position in orbit determines its potential energy. The total energy of an electron is the main factor, which determines the radius of the electrons orbit.

Electrons of an atom will appear only at certain definite energy levels (shells). The spacing between energy levels is such that when the chemical properties of the various elements are cataloged, it is convenient to group several closely spaced permissible energy levels together into electron shells. The maximum number of electrons that can be contained in any shell or sub-shell is the same for all atoms and is defined as Electron Capacity = 2n2. In this equation n represents the energy level in question. The first shell can only contain two electrons; the second shell can only contain eight electrons; the third, 18 and so on until we reach the seventh shell for the heaviest atoms, which have six energy levels. Because the innermost shell is the lowest energy level, the shell begins to fill up from the shell closest to the nucleus and fill outward as the atomic number of the element increases. However, an energy level does not need to be completely filled before electrons begin to fill the next level. The Periodic Table of Elements should be checked to determine an elementís electron configuration.

Valence Electrons

Valence is the number of chemical bonds an atom can form. Valence electrons are electrons that can participate in chemical bonds with other atoms. The number of electrons in the outermost shell of the atom is the determining factor in its valence. Therefore, the electrons contained in this shell are called valence electrons.

Ions

Ionization is the process by which an atom loses or gains electrons. Dislodging an electron from an atom will cause the atom to become positively charged. This net positively charged atom is called a positive ion or a cation. An atom that has gained an extra number of electrons is negatively charged and is called a negative ion or an anion. When atoms are neutral, the positively charged proton and the negatively charged electron are equal.

Free Electrons

Valence electrons are found drifting midway between two nuclei. Some electrons are more tightly bound to the nucleus of their atom than others and are positioned in a shell or sphere closer to the nucleus, while others are more loosely bound and orbit at a greater distance from the nucleus. These outermost electrons are called ďfreeĒ electrons because they can be easily dislodged from the positive attraction of the protons in the nucleus. Once freed from the atom, the electron can then travel from atom to atom, becoming the flow of electrons commonly called current in a practical electrical circuit.

Electron Movement

The valence of an atom determines its ability to gain or lose an electron, which ultimately determines the chemical and electrical properties of the atom. These properties can be categorized as being a conductor, semiconductor or insulator, depending on the ability of the material to produce free electrons. When a material has a large number of free electrons available, a greater current can be conducted in the material.

Conductors

Elements such as gold, copper and silver possess many free electrons and make good conductors. The atoms in these materials have a few loosely bound electrons in their outer orbits. Energy in the form of heat can cause these electrons in the outer orbit to break loose and drift throughout the material. Copper and silver have one electron in their outer orbits. At room temperature, a piece of silver wire will have billions of free electrons.

Insulators

These are materials that do not conduct electrical current very well or not at all. Good examples of these are: glass, ceramic, and plastic. Under normal conditions, atoms in these materials do not produce free electrons. The absence of the free electrons means that electrical current cannot be conducted through the material. Only when the material is in an extremely strong electrical field will the outer electrons be dislodged. This action is called breakdown and usually causes physical damage to the insulator.

Semiconductors

This material falls in between the characteristics of conductors and insulators, in that they are not good at conducting or insulating. Silicon and germanium are the most widely used semiconductor materials. For a more detailed explanation on this topic refer to Page 10-101 in this chapter.