The portable drill is a hand-supported, power-driven machine tool that rotates twist drills, reamers, counterbores, and similar cutting tools. The portable drill may be electrically powered by means of an internal electric motor (Figure 3-1) or may be pneumatically powered (Figure 3-2). Portable drills are rated by the maximum size hole that can be drilled in steel without overtaxing the motor or drill.
Figure 3-1. Portable electric hand drills.
Figure 3-2. Portable pneumatic hand drills
Therefore, a 1/4-inch-capacity drill is capable of drilling a 1/4-inch diameter hole or smaller in steel. Portable electric and pneumatic drills rated at 1/4 to 1/2-inch maximum capacities are usually equipped with geared drill chucks for mounting straight, round shank twist drills or other similar tools by using a chuck key (Figure 3-3). Heavier portable drills (Figure 3-4) having a 3/4- to 1 1/4-inch capacity use taper shank chucks to mount drills and other similar tools.
Figure 3-3. Geared drill chuck and chuck key.
Figure 3-4. 1-inch capacity portable electric drill.
Portable drills have many different characteristics (Figure 3-5) depending on how the job is to be done. They may be set for one speed or they maybe variable speed drills. A variable speed drill is an excellent tool for use as a power screwdriver. Portable drills may be equipped with a reversing switch to allow a screwdriver attachment to reverse bolts and screws out of holes. Special 90° angle portable drills (Figure 3-8) are available for drilling in confined spaces where a standard size drill will not have sufficient clearance. For corners and tight spots, a 360° angle portable pneumatic drill (Figure 3-2) is available which can be swiveled to any desired angle and locked into position. Most portable drills have a lock button near the on-off switch which allows for continuous operation without holding the trigger. Side handles and rear spade handles (Figure 3-5) can be attached to most drills to stabilize drilling and to allow for better control. Special devices. such as a vertical stand (Figure 3-6) or feed screw (Figure 3-7), can be used on some of the portable drills to make a job easier or more proficient.
Figure 3-5. Common portable drill.
Figure 3-6. Portable electric drill with vertical stand.
Figure 3-7. Operation of a portable drill showing the use of the feed screw.
Figure 3-8. Hand drilling operation in a confined space using a 90° angle drill.
The size, type. and power capacity of portable drills selected depends on the job to be performed. Before attempting a drilling job, check the capabilities of the portable drill with the manufacturer’s instruction manual.
Operation of the portable electric and pneumatic drills differs from recommended operating procedures for the upright drilling machine. The portable drill is hand supported for most operations, and the cutting speed of the drill is fixed or dependent upon the operator to control. When hand supported, the drill must be carefully aligned with the workpiece (Figure 3-9) and this alignment must be maintained throughout the drilling operation. Care must be taken not to lose control of the portable drill and allow it to be wrenched from the operator’s hands. The larger portable drills (Figure 3-10) can be very dangerous if not held firmly by the operator. If the cutting speed is fixed, the operator must learn to control the feed of the portable drill by applying sufficient pressure for the drill to cut, but not too much pressure as to cause overheating of the twist drill or stalling of the portable drill motor.
Figure 3-9. Drilling with portable drill.
Figure 3-10. Drilling with a large portable drill.
When metal is to be drilled with the portable drill, the workpiece must be prepared by locating the center position of the potential hole and marking the location with a center punch. When a large drill is to be used, it will be necessary first to drill a pilot hole slightly larger in diameter than the thickness of the larger drill’s web, which will allow for the drag caused by the larger drill’s chisel edge (Figure 3-11).
Figure 3-11. Drilling a pilot hole for a larger drill.
Portable pneumatic drills require special attention to lubricate their internal moving parts. Each drill may be made slightly different, so refer to the pertinent lubrication order or manufacturer’s instruction manual before drilling.
For drilling by hand, the workpiece must be mounted securely. Thin workplaces should be backed up with a thicker piece of wood or metal to prevent the drill from snagging in the workpiece. Do not attempt to hold any workpiece by hand or serious injury could result.
Select a twist drill of the proper size for the hole to be drilled. Ensure that the twist drill selected has the right type of shank for the type of chuck mounted on the portable drill. Taper shank drills cannot be mounted in a drill with a geared chuck. Check each twist drill for sharp cutting edges prior to use.
After securing the twist drill in the proper chuck, connect the portable drill to its power source. Position the portable drill perpendicular to the workpiece and center the chisel point of the drill in the center-punched hole of the workpiece. Apply firm but not too heavy pressure upon the portable drill, pull the trigger or throttle button to start the drill.
Apply a few drops of cutting oil to the twist drill and hole (Figure 3-12) to improve the cutting action and prevent overheating of the twist drill. For long drilling operations, stop the drill and allow it to cool; then apply additional cutting oil to the drilling area. The lock button can be engaged for lengthy cutting operations.
Figure 3-12. Drilling lubrication, incorrect and correct.
Continue drilling the hole while applying enough pressure to produce a clean chip, but not so much pressure as to cause the motor to strain or the drill to bind. The drill must be held firmly at all times to prevent the drill from being wrenched from the hands of the operator if the flutes of the drill should snag on a metal burr in the hole.
As the twist drill nears the back wall of the workpiece, release the lock button so that the drill can be stopped immediately if required. Decrease the feed pressure as the drill breaks through, and cautiously feed the drill through the wall of the workpiece. If the drill should snag on a burr, stop drilling immediately and withdraw from the hole. Carefully feed the drill back into the hole while the drill is turning to cut through the burr.
When a portable drill is mounted to a vertical stand, the operating procedure is identical to that used for the upright drilling machine. Use the lock button while drilling and use the hand lever to drill to the required depth.
Portable drilling operations can be difficult to an inexperienced operator. It is difficult to keep the twist drill perpendicular to the workpiece during drilling, and it is hard to drill to a desired depth accurately. If help is available, use the buddy system to keep the drill aligned while drilling. To drill to depth, mark the twist drill with a light colored marking pen or a strip of tape and keep a close watch on the drill as it cuts. Another way to drill to depth accurately using the portable drill is to use a jig, such as a piece of metal pipe or tubing cut to length, to indicate when the drill has reached the desired depth.