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This learning resource is built upon the online textbook, General Biology, available free of charge from OpenStax University. The textbook material, itself, is provided in the PDF format. This means you should have a PDF reader, such as Acrobat Reader. It is available here for downloading, free of charge--tap the Acrobat Reader image to begin the installation process.

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Table of Contents


Unit 1: The Cellular Foundation of Life

Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology

1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology

1.2 The Process of Science

Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life

2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules

2.2 Water

2.3 Biological Molecules

Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function

3.1 How Cells Are Studied

3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

3.3 Eukaryotic Cells

3.4 The Cell Membrane

3.5 Passive Transport

3.6 Active Transport

Chapter 4: How Cells Obtain Energy

4.1 Energy and Metabolism

4.2 Glycolysis

4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

4.4 Fermentation

4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways

Chapter 5: Photosynthesis

5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis

5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis

5.3 The Calvin Cycle

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Unit 2. Cell Division and Genetics

Chapter 6: Reproduction at the Cellular Level

6.1 The Genome

6.2 The Cell Cycle

6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle

6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division

Chapter 7: The Cellular Basis of Inheritance

7.1 Sexual Reproduction

7.2 Meiosis

7.3 Errors in Meiosis

Chapter 8: Patterns of Inheritance

8.1 Mendelís Experiments

8.2 Laws of Inheritance

8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance

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Unit 3. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

Chapter 9: Molecular Biology

9.1 The Structure of DNA

9.2 DNA Replication

9.3 Transcription

9.4 Translation

9.5 How Genes Are Regulated

Chapter 10: Biotechnology

10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering

10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture

10.3 Genomics and Proteomics

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Unit 4. Evolution and the Diversity of Life

Chapter 11: Evolution and Its Processes

11.1 Discovering How Populations Change

11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution

11.3 Evidence of Evolution

11.4 Speciation

11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution

Chapter 12: Diversity of Life

12.1 Organizing Life on Earth

12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships

Chapter 13: Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists

13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity

13.2 Eukaryotic Origins

13.3 Protists

13.4 Fungi

Chapter 14: Diversity of Plants

14.1 The Plant Kingdom

14.2 Seedless Plants

14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms

14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms

Chapter 15: Diversity of Animals

15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom

15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians

15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods

15.4 Mollusks and Annelids

15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates

15.6 Vertebrates

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Unit 5. Animal Structure and Function

Chapter 16: The Bodyís Systems

16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation

16.2 Digestive System

16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

16.4 Endocrine System

16.5 Musculoskeletal System

16.6 Nervous System

Chapter 17: The Immune System and Disease

17.1 Viruses

17.2 Innate Immunity

17.3 Adaptive Immunity

17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System

Chapter 18: Animal Reproduction and Development

18.1 How Animals Reproduce

18.2 Development and Organogenesis

18.3 Human Reproduction

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Unit 6. Ecology

Chapter 19: Population and Community Ecology

19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics

19.2 Population Growth and Regulation

19.3 The Human Population

19.4 Community Ecology

Chapter 20: Ecosystems and the Biosphere

20.1 Energy Flow through Ecosystems

20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles

20.3 Terrestrial Biomes

20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes

Chapter 21: Conservation and Biodiversity

21.1 Importance of Biodiversity

21.2 Threats to Biodiversity

21.3 Preserving Biodiversity

A Appendix

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David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015