About Lifelong Learning - Contact Us - DonateFree-Ed.Net Home   Bookmark and Share

 

13-1  STRUCTURE AND ANALYSIS

1. Structure

a. Any Major or minor chord can be preceded by its secondary dominant chord. In the key of C Major, the supertonic chord (D minor) can be preceded by its secondary dominant chord (a Major chord built on A). Figure 13-1 shows the dominant of the supertonic chord.

Figure 13-1. Secondary Dominant Chord

NOTE: The symbol V/ii is used throughout this lesson to represent the dominant of the supertonic chord Roman numeral analysis.

b. The secondary dominant chord must be a Major chord or a dominant seventh chord. In the key of C Major, the diatonic chord built on A is a minor submediant (vi) chord (measure one, Figure 13-2). Since the secondary dominant chord must be Major, the third of the chord (C) is altered (raised) by one half step (to C#) (measure two, Figure 13-2).

Figure 13-2. Altered Diatonic Chord

2. Function.

a. The secondary dominant chord functions as a temporary dominant chord to a temporary tonic. The altered third of the secondary dominant chord acts as a leading tone that contributes to the dominant function. In the key of C Major, the dominant of the supertonic chord is an A Major chord. The temporary tonic (or chord of resolution) is the supertonic chord (D minor). Figure 13-3 shows the dominant to tonic relationship between the secondary dominant chord and its chord of resolution.

Figure 13-3. Temporary Chord Function

b. The secondary dominant chord has a root movement to its chord of resolution of a descending perfect fifth (Figure 13-4).

Figure 13-4. Root Movement Relationship

3. Analysis.

There are several different systems of Roman numeral analysis. Figure 13-5 shows the various ways of notating the secondary dominant chord. The secondary dominant chord shown is the dominant of the supertonic chord in the key of C Major.

Figure 13-5. Analysis of Secondary Dominant Chords

NOTE: Remember, the symbol V/ii is used throughout this course to represent the dominant of the supertonic chord Roman numeral analysis.

a. Figured Bass. When a chord is altered to become a secondary dominant chord, the notes that have been altered are shown in the figured bass. The first measure of Figure 13-6 shows the figured bass of a minor submediant (vi) chord in the key of C Major that has been altered to become a secondary dominant (V/ii) chord. The second measure of Figure 13-6 shows the figured bass of a major (VI) chord in C minor that has been altered to become a secondary dominant (V/ii) chord.

Figure 13-6. Secondary Dominant Chord Figured Bass

b. Complete Analysis. Complete analysis includes both the Roman numeral and the figured bass and shows any inversions that are used (Figure 13-7).

Figure 13-7. Secondary Dominant Chord Complete Analysis

NOTE: For the purpose of this course, simplify secondary dominant chord symbols by representing these chords in root position only.

David L. Heiserman, Editor

Copyright   SweetHaven Publishing Services
All Rights Reserved

Revised: June 06, 2015