13-1  STRUCTURE AND ANALYSIS 1. Structure a. Any Major or minor chord can be preceded by its secondary dominant chord. In the key of C Major, the supertonic chord (D minor) can be preceded by its secondary dominant chord (a Major chord built on A). Figure 13-1 shows the dominant of the supertonic chord. Figure 13-1. Secondary Dominant Chord NOTE: The symbol V/ii is used throughout this lesson to represent the dominant of the supertonic chord Roman numeral analysis. b. The secondary dominant chord must be a Major chord or a dominant seventh chord. In the key of C Major, the diatonic chord built on A is a minor submediant (vi) chord (measure one, Figure 13-2). Since the secondary dominant chord must be Major, the third of the chord (C) is altered (raised) by one half step (to C#) (measure two, Figure 13-2). Figure 13-2. Altered Diatonic Chord 2. Function. a. The secondary dominant chord functions as a temporary dominant chord to a temporary tonic. The altered third of the secondary dominant chord acts as a leading tone that contributes to the dominant function. In the key of C Major, the dominant of the supertonic chord is an A Major chord. The temporary tonic (or chord of resolution) is the supertonic chord (D minor). Figure 13-3 shows the dominant to tonic relationship between the secondary dominant chord and its chord of resolution. Figure 13-3. Temporary Chord Function b. The secondary dominant chord has a root movement to its chord of resolution of a descending perfect fifth (Figure 13-4). Figure 13-4. Root Movement Relationship 3. Analysis. There are several different systems of Roman numeral analysis. Figure 13-5 shows the various ways of notating the secondary dominant chord. The secondary dominant chord shown is the dominant of the supertonic chord in the key of C Major. Figure 13-5. Analysis of Secondary Dominant Chords NOTE: Remember, the symbol V/ii is used throughout this course to represent the dominant of the supertonic chord Roman numeral analysis. a. Figured Bass. When a chord is altered to become a secondary dominant chord, the notes that have been altered are shown in the figured bass. The first measure of Figure 13-6 shows the figured bass of a minor submediant (vi) chord in the key of C Major that has been altered to become a secondary dominant (V/ii) chord. The second measure of Figure 13-6 shows the figured bass of a major (VI) chord in C minor that has been altered to become a secondary dominant (V/ii) chord. Figure 13-6. Secondary Dominant Chord Figured Bass b. Complete Analysis. Complete analysis includes both the Roman numeral and the figured bass and shows any inversions that are used (Figure 13-7). Figure 13-7. Secondary Dominant Chord Complete Analysis NOTE: For the purpose of this course, simplify secondary dominant chord symbols by representing these chords in root position only.