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16-1  RELATIONSHIP OF KEYS

1. Closely Related Keys.

In modulation, a key can progress to any other key. Common chord modulation is the movement to a closely related key.

2. Methods to Determine Closely Related Keys.

a. One method used to determine closely related keys is to use the circle of fifths. Closely related keys are those that are adjacent to a key on the circle of fifths and their relative minor or major keys. Therefore, any one key has five closely related keys. In Figure 16-1, the five closely related keys to C Major (F Major, G Major, D minor, A minor, and E minor) are shown.

Figure 16-1. Closely Related Keys by Circle of Fifths

b. Another method used to determine closely related keys is to find the keys that are the diatonic dominant and diatonic subdominant of the tonic key and the relative minor (or major) keys of each key. Figure 16-2 shows a chart of the five closely related keys to C Major and A minor. The Roman numerals below each closely related key show the function of each key in relation to the tonic key.

Figure 16-2. Closely Related Keys by Function

SELF REVIEW EXERCISE 16-1

Write the five closely related keys of the following tonic chords (Figure 16-3). Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Figure 16-3. Write Closely Related Keys

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Answer Key

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015