Valve and Valve Seats
in a four-stroke-cycle engine must have one intake and one exhaust valve. The valves that
are commonly used are of the poppet design. The word poppet is derived from the
popping action of the valve.Poppet-type valves are made in the following three basic
shapes: semitulip, tulip, and mushroom (fig.3-50). The valve shape used in a given engine
depends on requirements and shape of the combustion chamber.
and design considerations are very different for intake and exhaust valves. The difference
is based on their temperature operating ranges. Intake valves are kept cool by the
incoming intake mixture. Exhaust valves are subject to intense heat from the burnt gases
that pass by it. The temperature of an exhaust valve can be in excess of 1300°F. Intake
valves are made of nickel chromium alloy. Whereas, exhaust valves are made
from silichrome alloy. In certain heavy-duty and most air-cooled engines,
the exhaust valves are sodium filled. During engine operation, the sodium inside
the hollow valve melts. When the valve opens, the sodium splashes down into the valve head
and collects heat. Then, when the valve closes, the sodium splashes up into the valve
stem. Heat transfers out of the sodium, into the stem, valve guide, and engine coolant. In
this way, the valve is cooled. Sodium-filled valves are light and allow high engine rpm
for prolonged periods.
that use unleaded fuel, a stellite valve is preferred. A stellite valve has a
special hard metal coating on its face. Lead additives in gasoline, other than increasing
octane, act as a lubricant. The lead coats the valve face and seat to reduce wear. With
unleaded fuel, the wear of the valve seat and valve face is accelerated. To prevent this
and prolong valve service life, use a stellite valve.
are important, as they must match the face of the valve head to form a perfect seal. The
seats are made so they are concentric with the valve guides; that is, the surface of the
seat is an equal distance from the center of the guide all around Although some earlier
engines were designed with flat contact surface for the valve and valve seat, most are now
designed with valve seat angles of 30 to 45 degrees, as shown in figure 3-51. This angle helps prevent excessive
accumulation of carbon on the contact surface of the seata condition that keeps the
valve from closing properly. To further reduce carbon build up, there is an interference
angle (usually 1 degree) between the valve and seat. In some cases, a small portion of the
valve seat has an additional 15-degree angle ground into it to narrow the contact area of
the valve face and seat. When you reduce the contact area, the pressure between the mating
parts is increased, thereby forming a better seal.
seats may be an integral part of the cylinder head or an insert pressed into the cylinder
head. Valve seat inserts are commonly used in aluminum cylinder heads. Steel inserts are
needed to withstand the extreme heat. When a valve seat insert is badly worn from grinding
or pitting, it must be replaced.
3-51.Valve-to-valve seat relationship.