Automotive Systems

Formerly Automotive Systems I

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Carburetor Accessories

CARBURETOR ACCESSORIES

There are several devices used on carburetors to improve drivability and economy. These devices are as follows: the fast idle solenoid, the throttle return dashpot, the hot idle compensator, and the altitude compensator. Their applications vary from vehicle to vehicle.

Fast Idle Solenoid
A fast idle solenoid, also known as an antidieseling solenoid (fig. 4-40), opens the carburetor throttle plates during engine operation but allows the throttle plates to close as soon as the engine is turned off. In this way, a faster idle speed can be used while still avoiding dieseling (engine keeps running even though the ignition key is turned off). This is a particular problem with newer emission controlled vehicles due to higher operating temperatures, higher idle speeds, leaner fuel mixtures, and lower octane fuel.

When the engine is running, current flows to the fast idle solenoid, causing the plunger to move outward. The throttle plates are held open to increase engine speed. The plunger is adjustable, so the idle speed can be adjusted. When the engine is turned off, current flow to the solenoid stops. The solenoid plunger retracts and the throttle plates are free to swing almost closed.

Throttle Return Dashpot
The throttle return dashpot, also known as an antistall dashpot (fig. 4-41), acts as a damper to keep the throttle from closing too quickly when the accelerator pedal is suddenly released. It is commonly used on carburetors for automatic transmission equipped vehicles. Without the throttle return dashpot, the engine could stall when the engine quickly returned to idle. The drag of the automatic transmission could kill the engine.

The throttle return dashpot works something like a shock absorber. It uses a spring-loaded diaphragm mounted in a sealed housing. A small hole is drilledinto the diaphragm housing to prevent rapid movement of the dashpot plunger and diaphragm. Air must bleed out of the hole slowly.

When the vehicle is traveling down the road (throttle plates open), the spring pushes the dashpot plunger forward. When the engine returns to idle, the throttle lever strikes the extended dashpot plunger, and air leaks out of the throttle return dashpot, returning the engine slowly to curb idle. This action gives the automatic transmission enough time to disconnect (torque converter releases) from the engine without the engine stalling.

Hot Idle Compensator
A hot idle compensator (fig. 4-42) is a thermostatically controlled device that prevents engine stalling or a rough idle under high engine temperatures. The temperature sensitive valve admits extra air into the engine to increase idle speed and smoothness.

At normal engine temperatures, the hot-idle compensator valve remains closed, and the engine idles normally. When temperatures are high (prolonged idling periods, for example), fuel vapors can enter the air horn and enrich the air-fuel mixture. The hot idle compensator opens to allow extra air to enter the intake manifold. This action compensates for the extra fuel vapors and corrects the air-fuel mixture.

Altitude Compensator
An altitude compensator is used to change the air-fuel mixture in the carburetor with changes in the vehicle height above sea level. Normally the compensator is an aneroid device (bellows device that expands and contracts with changes in atmospheric pressure).

As a vehicle is driven up a mountain, the density of the air decreases. This condition tends to make the air-fuel mixture richer. The reduced air pressure causes the aneroid to expand, opening an air valve. Extra air flows into the air horn and the air-fuel mixture becomes leaner. The opposite occurs when the vehicle descends from the mountain. The greater air density and pressure tends to make the carburetor mixture too lean. The increased air pressure collapses the aneroid and the air valve closes. This action enriches the mixture enough to compensate for the low altitude.

Figure  4-40.—Antidieseling solenoid operation.

Figure 4-41.—Throttle return dashpot.

Figure 4-42.—Hot idle compensator.

Published by SweetHaven Publishing Services
Based upon a text provided by the U.S. Navy

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