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Earth Materials
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"EARTH’S SURFACE IS COMPOSED of diverse materials: black lava flows, white sandy beaches, red cliffs, and hills of gray granite. Also, Earth is a treasury of gemstones and other mineral resources that are useful to society. What kinds of materials are common on Earth, and how did the less common ones, such as gemstones, form? Here, we explore Earth materials from landscapes to atoms."

From: Exploring Geology
by Stephen Reynolds, et al