Part of the metalworker’s skill lies in the ability to identify various metal products brought to the shop. The metalworker must be able to identify the metal so the proper work methods can be applied. For Army equipment, drawings should be available. They must be examined in order to determine the metal to be used and its heat treatment (if required). If no drawing is available, knowledge of what the parts are going to do will serve as a guide to the type of metal to use.
Simple tests can be made in the shop to identify metals. Since the ability to judge metals can be developed only through personal experience, practice these tests with known metals until familiar with the reactions of each metal to each type of test.
Appearance Test. This test includes such things as the color and appearance of machined as well as unmachined surfaces.
Fracture Test. Some metals can be quickly identified by looking at the surface of the broken part or by studying the chips produced with a hammer and chisel.
Spark Test. This is a simple identification test used to observe the color, spacing, and quantity of sparks produced by grinding. It is a fast and convenient method of sorting mixed steels with known spark characteristics. This test is best conducted by holding the steel stationary and touching a high-speed portable grinder to the steel with sufficient pressure to throw a spark stream about 12 inches long. Spark patterns provide general information about the type of steel, cast iron, or alloy steel. In all cases, it is best to use standard samples of metal when comparing their sparks with that of the test sample.
File Test. One simple way to check for hardness in a piece of metal is to file a small portion of it. If it is soft enough to be machined with regular tooling, the file will cut it. If it is too hard to machine, the file will not cut it. This method will indicate whether the material being tested is softer or harder than the file, but it will not tell exactly how soft or hard it is. The file can also be used to determine the harder of two pieces of metal; the file will cut the softer metal faster and easier. The file method should only be used in situations when the exact hardness is not required. This test has the added advantage of needing very little in the way of time, equipment, and experience.
Rockwell Hardness Test. This test determines the hardness of metals by measuring the depth of impression which can be made by a hard test point under a known load. The softer the metal, the deeper the impression. Soft metals will be indicated by low hardness numbers. Harder metals permit less of an impression to be made, resulting in higher hardness numbers. Rockwell hardness testing is accomplished by using the Rockwell hardness testing machine (Figure 2-8).
Figure 2-8. Rockwell hardness tester.
Brinell Hardness Test. Brinell hardness testing operates on almost the same principle as the Rockwell test. The difference between the two is that the Rockwell hardness number is determined by the depth of the impression while the Brinell hardness number is determined by the area of the impression. This test forces a hardened ball, 10 mm (0.3937 in) in diameter, into the surface of the metal being tested, under a load of 3,000 kilograms (approximately 6,600 lb). The area of this impression determines the Brinell hardness number of the metal being tested. Softer metals result in larger impressions but have lower hardness numbers.
Perhaps the best known numerical code is the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) code. For the metals industry, this organization pioneered in developing a uniform code based on chemical analysis. SAE specification numbers are now used less widely than in the past; however, the SAE numerical code is the basic code for ferrous metals Figure 2- 9).
Figure 2-9. SAE numerical codes.
The SAE system is based on the use of four-or five digit numbers.
The following examples will help you understand this.
|SAE 1045 system:
A system similar to the SAE classifications for steel and alloys has been developed by the Aluminum Association (AA) for wrought aluminum and aluminum alloys.
Figure 2-10. Major alloying elements.
This identification system of aluminum, as shown in Figure 2-10, consists of a four-digit number which indicates the type of alloy. control over impurities, and the specific alloy. The first number indicates the type of alloy. For example, 2 is copper, 3 is manganese, 4 is silicone, and so forth. The second number indicates the control that has been used. The last two numbers usually indicate an assigned composition. Thus, AA-2024 means:
Aluminum alloys vary greatly in their hardness and physical condition. These differences are called “temper,” Letter symbols represent the different tempers, In addition to a letter, one or more numbers are sometimes used to indicate further differences. The temper designation is separated from the basic four-digit identification number by a dash; for example, 2024-T6. In this case there is an aluminum alloy, 2024, with a T6 temper (solution heat treated and then artificially aged). Figure 2-11 shows the numerals 2 through 10 that have been assigned in the AA system to indicate specific sequences of annealing, heat treating, cold working, or aging.
Figure 2-11. Temper designations for aluminum.
Stenciling. A stencil and white or black paint, whichever shows up better on the metal being marked, should be used when the size of the metal piece permits. The federal or military specification numbers should be stenciled on the metal in vertically or horizontally aligned rows. The distance between the vertical rows should not exceed 36 inches, and the distance between the horizontal rows should not exceed 10 inches.
Stamping. Stamping the specification number into the metal should be used when it is impossible to use the stencil method. It is usually necessary to cut or eliminate the marked portion of the metal prior to using the material for work stock. Therefore, the marking should be located where waste will be held to a minimum. Gothic style numerals and letters should be used; the height may be 1/16 inch, 1/8 inch, or 1/4 inch, depending upon the size of the material being marked.