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This learning resource is built upon the online textbook, Chemistry, available free of charge from OpenStax University. The textbook material, itself, is provided in the PDF format. This means you should have a PDF reader, such as Acrobat Reader. It is available here for downloading, free of charge--tap the Acrobat Reader image to begin the installation process.

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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Essential Ideas

1.1 Chemistry in Context

1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter

1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties

1.4 Measurements

1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision

1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory

2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory

2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism

2.4 Chemical Formulas

2.5 The Periodic Table

2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds

2.7 Chemical Nomenclature

Chapter 3: Composition of Substances and Solutions

3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept

3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas

3.3 Molarity

3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations

Chapter 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions

4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions

4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry

4.4 Reaction Yields

4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis

Chapter 5: Thermochemistry

5.1 Energy Basics

5.2 Calorimetry

5.3 Enthalpy

Chapter 6: Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements

6.1 Electromagnetic Energy

6.2 The Bohr Model

6.3 Development of Quantum Theory

6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

Chapter 7: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry

7.1 Ionic Bonding

7.2 Covalent Bonding

7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures

7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance

7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds

7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity

Chapter 8: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding

8.1 Valence Bond Theory

8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals

8.3 Multiple Bonds

8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory

Chapter 9: Gases

9.1 Gas Pressure

9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law

9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions

9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases

9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory

9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior

Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids

10.1 Intermolecular Forces

10.2 Properties of Liquids

10.3 Phase Transitions

10.4 Phase Diagrams

10.5 The Solid State of Matter

10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids

Chapter 11: Solutions and Colloids

11.1 The Dissolution Process

11.2 Electrolytes

11.3 Solubility

11.4 Colligative Properties

11.5 Colloids

Chapter 12: Kinetics

12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates

12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates

12.3 Rate Laws

12.4 Integrated Rate Laws

12.5 Collision Theory

12.6 Reaction Mechanisms

12.7 Catalysis

Chapter 13: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts

13.1 Chemical Equilibria

13.2 Equilibrium Constants

13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Ch‚telierís Principle

13.4 Equilibrium Calculations

Chapter 14: Acid-Base Equilibria

14.1 BrÝnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

14.2 pH and pOH

14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

14.4 Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions

14.5 Polyprotic Acids

14.6 Buffers

14.7 Acid-Base Titrations

Chapter 15: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes

15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution

15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases

15.3 Multiple Equilibria

Chapter 16: Thermodynamics

16.1 Spontaneity

16.2 Entropy

16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

16.4 Free Energy

Chapter 17: Electrochemistry

17.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

17.2 Galvanic Cells

17.3 Standard Reduction Potentials

17.4 The Nernst Equation

17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells

17.6 Corrosion

17.7 Electrolysis

Chapter 18: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals

18.1 Periodicity

18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals

18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids

18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals

18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen

18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates

18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen

18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus

18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen

18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur

18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens

18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases

Chapter 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds

19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals

19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds

Chapter 20: Organic Chemistry

20.1 Hydrocarbons

20.2 Alcohols and Ethers

20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters

20.4 Amines and Amides

Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry

21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability

21.2 Nuclear Equations

21.3 Radioactive Decay

21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy

21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes

21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation


A The Periodic Table

B Essential Mathematics

C Units and Conversion Factors

D Fundamental Physical Constants

E Water Properties

F Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases

G Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances

H Ionization Constants of Weak Acids

I Ionization Constants of Weak Bases

J Solubility Products

K Formation Constants for Complex Ions

L Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials

M Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015