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This learning resource is built upon the online textbook, Microbiology, available free of charge from OpenStax University. The textbook material, itself, is provided in the PDF format. This means you should have a PDF reader, such as Acrobat Reader. It is available here for downloading, free of charge--tap the Acrobat Reader image to begin the installation process.


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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: An Invisible World

1.1 What Our Ancestors Knew

1.2 A Systematic Approach

1.3 Types of Microorganisms

Chapter 2: How We See the Invisible World

2.1 The Properties of Light

2.2 Peering Into the Invisible World

2.3 Instruments of Microscopy

2.4 Staining Microscopic Specimens

Chapter 3: The Cell

3.1 Spontaneous Generation

3.2 Foundations of Modern Cell Theory

3.3 Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells

3.4 Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells

Chapter 4: Prokaryotic Diversity

4.1 Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes

4.2 Proteobacteria

4.3 Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria

4.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria

4.5 Deeply Branching Bacteria

4.6 Archaea

Chapter 5: The Eukaryotes of Microbiology

5.1 Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites

5.2 Parasitic Helminths

5.3 Fungi

5.4 Algae

5.5 Lichens

Chapter 6: Acellular Pathogens

6.1 Viruses

6.2 The Viral Life Cycle

6.3 Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses

6.4 Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions

Chapter 7: Microbial Biochemistry

7.1 Organic Molecules

7.2 Carbohydrates

7.3 Lipids

7.4 Proteins

7.5 Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms

Chapter 8: Microbial Metabolism

8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes

8.2 Catabolism of Carbohydrates

8.3 Cellular Respiration

8.4 Fermentation

8.5 Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins

8.6 Photosynthesis

8.7 Biogeochemical Cycles

Chapter 9: Microbial Growth

9.1 How Microbes Grow

9.2 Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth

9.3 The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth

9.4 Temperature and Microbial Growth

9.5 Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth

9.6 Media Used for Bacterial Growth

Chapter 10: Biochemistry of the Genome

10.1 Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life

10.2 Structure and Function of DNA

10.3 Structure and Function of RNA

10.4 Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes

Chapter 11: Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics

11.1 The Functions of Genetic Material

11.2 DNA Replication

11.3 RNA Transcription

11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)

11.5 Mutations

11.6 How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity

11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory

Chapter 12: Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics

12.1 Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering

12.2 Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein

12.3 Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering

12.4 Gene Therapy

Chapter 13: Control of Microbial Growth

13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth

13.2 Using Physical Methods to Control Microorganisms

13.3 Using Chemicals to Control Microorganisms

13.4 Testing the Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants

Chapter 14: Antimicrobial Drugs

14.1 History of Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial Discovery

14.2 Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

14.3 Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs

14.4 Mechanisms of Other Antimicrobial Drugs

14.5 Drug Resistance

14.6 Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials

14.7 Current Strategies for Antimicrobial Discovery

Chapter 15: Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

15.1 Characteristics of Infectious Disease

15.2 How Pathogens Cause Disease

15.3 Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens

15.4 Virulence Factors of Eukaryotic Pathogens

Chapter 16: Disease and Epidemiology

16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists

16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases

16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission

16.4 Global Public Health

Chapter 17: Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses

17.1 Physical Defenses

17.2 Chemical Defenses

17.3 Cellular Defenses

17.4 Pathogen Recognition and Phagocytosis

17.5 Inflammation and Fever

Chapter 18: Adaptive Specific Host Defenses

18.1 Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity

18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells

18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity

18.4 B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity

18.5 Vaccines

Chapter 19: Diseases of the Immune System

19.1 Hypersensitivities

19.2 Autoimmune Disorders

19.3 Organ Transplantation and Rejection

19.4 Immunodeficiency

19.5 Cancer Immunobiology and Immunotherapy

Chapter 20: Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response

20.1 Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody Production

20.2 Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes

20.3 Agglutination Assays

20.4 EIAs and ELISAs

20.5 Fluorescent Antibody Techniques

Chapter 21: Skin and Eye Infections

21.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Skin and Eyes

21.2 Bacterial Infections of the Skin and Eyes

21.3 Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes

21.4 Mycoses of the Skin

21.5 Protozoan and Helminthic Infections of the Skin and Eyes

Chapter 22: Respiratory System Infections

22.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory Tract

22.2 Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract

22.3 Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract

22.4 Respiratory Mycoses

Chapter 23: Urogenital System Infections

23.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital Tract

23.2 Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System

23.3 Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System

23.4 Viral Infections of the Reproductive System

23.5 Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System

23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System

Chapter 24: Digestive System Infections

24.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System

24.2 Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity

24.3 Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract

24.4 Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract

24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract

24.6 Helminthic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Chapter 25: Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections

25.1 Anatomy of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems

25.2 Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems

25.3 Viral Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems

25.4 Parasitic Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems

Chapter 26: Nervous System Infections

26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System

26.2 Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System

26.3 Acellular Diseases of the Nervous System

26.4 Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System


Appendix A: Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry Important to Microbiology

Appendix B: Mathematical Basics

Appendix C: Metabolic Pathways

Appendix D: Taxonomy of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms

Appendix E: Glossary

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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All Rights Reserved

Revised: June 06, 2015