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This learning resource is built upon the online textbook, U.S. History, available free of charge from OpenStax University. The textbook material, itself, is provided in the PDF format. This means you should have a PDF reader, such as Acrobat Reader. It is available here for downloading, free of charge--tap the Acrobat Reader image to begin the installation process.

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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492

1.1 The Americas

1.2 Europe on the Brink of Change

1.3 West Africa and the Role of Slavery

Chapter 2: Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650

2.1 Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest

2.2 Religious Upheavals in the Developing Atlantic World

2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy

2.4 New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange

Chapter 3: Creating New Social Orders: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700

3.1 Spanish Exploration and Colonial Society

3.2 Colonial Rivalries: Dutch and French Colonial Ambitions

3.3 English Settlements in America

3.4 The Impact of Colonization

Chapter 4: Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies

4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire

4.3 An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution

4.4 Great Awakening and Enlightenment

4.5 Wars for Empire

Chapter 5: Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763-1774

5.1 Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War

5.2 The Stamp Act and the Sons and Daughters of Liberty

5.3 The Townshend Acts and Colonial Protest

5.4 The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts

5.5 Disaffection: The First Continental Congress and American Identity

Chapter 6: America's War for Independence, 1775-1783

6.1 Britain’s Law-and-Order Strategy and Its Consequences

6.2 The Early Years of the Revolution

6.3 War in the South

6.4 Identity during the American Revolution

Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790

7.1 Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic

7.2 How Much Revolutionary Change?

7.3 Debating Democracy

7.4 The Constitutional Convention and Federal Constitution

Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820

8.1 Competing Visions: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

8.2 The New American Republic

8.3 Partisan Politics

8.4 The United States Goes Back to War

Chapter 9: Industrial Transformation in the North, 1800–1850

9.1 Early Industrialization in the Northeast

9.2 A Vibrant Capitalist Republic

9.3 On the Move: The Transportation Revolution

9.4 A New Social Order: Class Divisions

Chapter 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820–1840

10.1 A New Political Style: From John Quincy Adams to Andrew Jackson

10.2 The Rise of American Democracy

10.3 The Nullification Crisis and the Bank War

10.4 Indian Removal

10.5 The Tyranny and Triumph of the Majority

Chapter 11: A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800–1860

11.1 Lewis and Clark

11.2 The Missouri Crisis

11.3 Independence for Texas

11.4 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848

11.5 Free Soil or Slave? The Dilemma of the West

Chapter 12: Cotton is King: The Antebellum South, 1800–1860

12.1 The Economics of Cotton

12.2 African Americans in the Antebellum United States

12.3 Wealth and Culture in the South

12.4 The Filibuster and the Quest for New Slave States

Chapter 13: Antebellum Idealism and Reform Impulses, 1820–1860

13.1 An Awakening of Religion and Individualism

13.2 Antebellum Communal Experiments

13.3 Reforms to Human Health

13.4 Addressing Slavery

13.5 Women’s Rights

Chapter 14: Troubled Times: the Tumultuous 1850s

14.1 The Compromise of 1850

14.2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Republican Party

14.3 The Dred Scott Decision and Sectional Strife

14.4 John Brown and the Election of 1860

Chapter 15: The Civil War, 1860–1865

15.1 The Origins and Outbreak of the Civil War

15.2 Early Mobilization and War

15.3 1863: The Changing Nature of the War

15.4 The Union Triumphant

Chapter 16: The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877

16.1 Restoring the Union

16.2 Congress and the Remaking of the South, 1865–1866

16.3 Radical Reconstruction, 1867–1872

16.4 The Collapse of Reconstruction

Chapter 17: Go West Young Man! Westward Expansion, 1840-1900

17.1 The Westward Spirit

17.2 Homesteading: Dreams and Realities

17.3 Making a Living in Gold and Cattle

17.4 The Loss of American Indian Life and Culture

17.5 The Impact of Expansion on Chinese Immigrants and Hispanic Citizens

Chapter 18: Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business, 1870-1900

18.1 Inventors of the Age

18.2 From Invention to Industrial Growth

18.3 Building Industrial America on the Backs of Labor

18.4 A New American Consumer Culture

Chapter 19: The Growing Pains of Urbanization, 1870-1900

19.1 Urbanization and Its Challenges

19.2 The African American “Great Migration” and New European Immigration

19.3 Relief from the Chaos of Urban Life

19.4 Change Reflected in Thought and Writing

Chapter 20: Politics in the Gilded Age, 1870-1900

20.1 Political Corruption in Postbellum America

20.2 The Key Political Issues: Patronage, Tariffs, and Gold

20.3 Farmers Revolt in the Populist Era

20.4 Social and Labor Unrest in the 1890s

Chapter 21: Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement, 1890-1920

21.1 The Origins of the Progressive Spirit in America

21.2 Progressivism at the Grassroots Level

21.3 New Voices for Women and African Americans

21.4 Progressivism in the White House

Chapter 22: Age of Empire: American Foreign Policy, 1890-1914

22.1 Turner, Mahan, and the Roots of Empire

22.2 The Spanish-American War and Overseas Empire

22.3 Economic Imperialism in East Asia

22.4 Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Foreign Policy

22.5 Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”

Chapter 23: Americans and the Great War, 1914-1919

23.1 American Isolationism and the European Origins of War

23.2 The United States Prepares for War

23.3 A New Home Front

23.4 From War to Peace

23.5 Demobilization and Its Difficult Aftermath

Chapter 24: The Jazz Age: Redefining the Nation, 1919-1929

24.1 Prosperity and the Production of Popular Entertainment

24.2 Transformation and Backlash

24.3 A New Generation

24.4 Republican Ascendancy: Politics in the 1920s

Chapter 25: Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? The Great Depression, 1929-1932

25.1 The Stock Market Crash of 1929

25.2 President Hoover’s Response

25.3 The Depths of the Great Depression

25.4 Assessing the Hoover Years on the Eve of the New Deal

Chapter 26: Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1941

26.1 The Rise of Franklin Roosevelt

26.2 The First New Deal

26.3 The Second New Deal

Chapter 27: Fighting the Good Fight in World War II, 1941-1945

27.1 The Origins of War: Europe, Asia, and the United States

27.2 The Home Front

27.3 Victory in the European Theater

27.4 The Pacific Theater and the Atomic Bomb

Chapter 28: Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960

28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime

28.2 The Cold War

28.3 The American Dream

28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media

28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights

Chapter 29: Contesting Futures: America in the 1960s

29.1 The Kennedy Promise

29.2 Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society

29.3 The Civil Rights Movement Marches On

29.4 Challenging the Status Quo

Chapter 30: Political Storms at Home and Abroad, 1968-1980

30.1 Identity Politics in a Fractured Society

30.2 Coming Apart, Coming Together

30.3 Vietnam: The Downward Spiral

30.4 Watergate: Nixon’s Domestic Nightmare

30.5 Jimmy Carter in the Aftermath of the Storm

Chapter 31: From Cold War to Culture Wars, 1980-2000

31.1 The Reagan Revolution

31.2 Political and Cultural Fusions

31.3 A New World Order

31.4 Bill Clinton and the New Economy

Chapter 32: The Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

32.1 The War on Terror

32.2 The Domestic Mission

32.3 New Century, Old Disputes

32.4 Hope and Change


A The Declaration of Independence

B The Constitution of the United States

C Presidents of the United States of America

C Presidents of the United States of America

C Presidents of the United States of America

F United States Population Chart

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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All Rights Reserved

Revised: June 06, 2015