Wood and Light Frame Structures

Engineering techs prepare drawings, and regardless of the type of drawing you need to prepare, you must apply your knowledge of materials and construction methods. Light frame structures using wood are some of the most common structures. This lesson covers wood; its uses, kinds, sizes, grades, and classifications. It also describes how builders use wood to frame and finish a structure with appropriate hardware and fasteners. A familiarity with this type of structure and its materials will help you prepare your drawings.

When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to:

1. Describe the different types of wood engineering techs utilize.
2. Describe the different types of wood frame structures.
3. Describe the different types of building finishes.
4. Identify the different types of hardware.
5. Identify the different types of fasteners


  1. Wood
  2. Wood Frame Structures
  3. Building Finish
  4. Hardware
  5. Fasteners

Review Questions

1.0.0 WOOD

Wood is probably the most often used and perhaps the most important construction material. We build very few construction projects, permanent or temporary, without using wood. In addition to wood for the structure itself, And we make temporary use of wood for scaffolding, shoring, bracing, and miscellaneous concrete forms.

There are several types, or species, of wood; the variety is practically unlimited. Each has its own characteristics and recommended uses. For most large projects, the specifications will indicate the required types and classifications.

For smaller projects that do not have written specifications, the drawings include the project’s types and classifications of wood. Figure 7-1 provides the sources and uses of some common woods. In addition, the Architectural Graphic Standards lists the species, size classification, and design values of common structural woods.

Figure 7-1 — Common woods.

1.1.0 Lumber

In construction, the terms wood, lumber, and timber have distinct, separate meanings.

1.1.1 Sizes

In the United States, to permit uniformity in planning and ordering materials, the construction industry uses standardized lumber sizes. You identify Lumber by nominal size, which is larger than the actual dressed dimension.

Dressed lumber is surfaced (planed smooth) on two or more sides and designated according to the number of sides or edges surfaced. For example, S2S (surfaced 2 sides) identifies lumber surfaced on two sides; S4S (surfaced 4 sides) is lumber surfaced on all four sides and S2S2E is lumber surfaced on two sides and two edges. When you develop your drawings or order materials from suppliers, designate lumber by nominal size rather than dressed dimensions. Figure 7-2 shows common dimensions for nominal and dressed lumber.

Figure 7-2 — Nominal and dressed sizes of lumber.

1.1.2 Classification

Use, size, and extent of manufacture determine lumber classification.

Lumber that is classified according to use falls into three categories:

Lumber classified according to size has three general classifications:

Lumber classified by extent of manufacture consists of three types:

1.1.3 Grading

The National Bureau of Standards, part of U.S. Department of Commerce, established the American Lumber Standards to grade lumber for quality.

Yard Lumber---There are two major grades. In descending quality, they are select lumber and common lumber. These grades have further subdivisions, also in descending order of quality.

A and B are suitable for natural finishes; C and D are satisfactory when painted.

Structural Lumber---Allowable stresses determine the grade according to its safe loadcarrying capacity. Various factors, such as species of the wood, density, moisture content, and other characteristics, affect the capacity of these allowable stresses and determine the grade.

Factory and Shop Lumber---generally determined by intended use, and the grades very greatly from use to use.

1.1.4 Board Measure

Board foot is the basic unit of quantity for lumber. The definition of a board foot is the volume of a board 1 foot long by 1 foot wide by 1 inch thick. You usually measure the length of lumber in feet, the width in inches, and the thickness in inches, so the formula for the quantity of lumber in board feet becomes the following:


 thickness (inches) x  width (inches) x  length (feet)  =  board measure (board feet)



Calculate the board measure of a 14-ft length of a 2 by 4.

Applying the formula, you get:


2 x 4 x 14  = 9 1 bm
12 3

For board measure purposes, presume lumber less than 1 inch thick to be 1 inch thick. Calculate board measure using the nominal, not the dressed, dimensions of lumber. The symbol for board feet is bm, and the symbol for a unit of 1,000 is M. If you needed 10,000 board feet of lumber for example, you would indicate the quantity as 10Mbm.

1.2.0 Laminated Lumber

Laminated lumber is a solution when a design requires wood with increased loadcarrying capacity and rigidity. It is usually made of several pieces of 1 1/2-inch -thick lumber, called laminations, that are nailed, bolted, or glued together with the grain of all pieces running parallel (Figure 7-3A). When necessary, manufacturers can achieve extra length by splicing additional pieces so that no two adjacent laminations splice at the same point. Built-up beams and girders are examples of laminated lumber.

Figure 7-3 — Examples of laminated lumber and manufactured truss.

Designers can incorporate laminations independently or with other materials in the construction of a structural unit. They may design trusses made with laminations for the chords and sawed lumber for the web members (Figure 7-3B). Special beams (Figure 7-4A) may have laminations for the flanges and sawed lumber for the webs.

Figure 7-4 — Examples of laminated beam and scarf techniques.

Probably the most common use of laminations is in the fabrication of large beams and arches. Builders have erected beams with spans larger than 100 ft and depths of 8 1/2 ft with laminated beams manufactured with 2-inch boards. Laminations this large are factory-produced, glued together under pressure, and spliced using scarf joints (Figure 7-4B). Then the entire piece is dressed to ensure uniform thickness and width.

1.3.0 Plywood

Plywood is a panel product made from thin sheets of wood called veneers. Manufacturers generally use an odd number of veneers, such as three, five, or seven, so the grains on the face and back of the panel run in the same direction. Cross lamination distributes the grain strength in both directions, creating a panel that resists splitting and, pound for pound, is one of the strongest building materials.

Figure 7-5 — Typical plywood grain direction.

Dry from the mill, plywood is never "green." From oven-dry to complete moisture saturation, a plywood panel swells across or along the grain only about 0.2 % and considerably less with normal exposures.

No other building material is as versatile as plywood. Builders use it for concrete forms, wall and roof sheathing, flooring, box beams, soffits, stressed-skin panels, paneling, partitions, doors, furniture, shelving, cabinets, crates, signs, and many other purposes.

1.3.1 Sizes

Plywood is generally available in panel widths of 36, 48, and 60 inches and in panel lengths ranging from 60 to 144 inches in 12-inch increments. Other sizes are also available on special order. Panels 48 inches wide by 96 inches long (4 by 8 feet), and 48 inches wide by 120 inches long (4 by 10 feet), are the most commonly available sizes. The 4 by 8 feet and larger sizes simplify construction, saving time and labor.

Sanded panels range from 1/4 to 1 1/4 inch or greater nominal thickness, generally in 1/8-inch increments. Unsanded panels range from 5/16 inch to 1 1/4 inch or greater in nominal thickness, in increments of 1/8 inch for thicknesses over 3/8 inch, and increments of 1/16-inch for thicknesses under 3/8 inch.

1.3.2 Types

Exterior and interior are the two plywood classifications.

1.3.3 Grades

There are several grades within each type of plywood. Knotholes, pitch pockets, splits, discolorations, and patches, all affect the grade of the facing veneer, and the grade of veneer, along with the kind of glue used, will determine the grade of the panel (N, A, B, C, or D).

1.3.4 Identification Stamps

Each sheet of plywood has stamps on the edges and back for identification.

It shows all the information needed about the sheet, except its actual size. 

Figure 7-6 — Typical plywood identification stamps.

Sheathing panels, structural and standard, have stamps that very somewhat from the standard stamps.

Figure 7-7 — Typical sheathing identification stamps.

Sheathing identification stamps do not provide the grade or species group, but they provide index numbers, 48/24 and 32/16, for the maximum spacing (in inches) of supports.

For wall sheathing, you do not need to refer to the index number.

You can find detailed information on specific types, grades, and uses for plywood in the commercial standards for plywood manufacture established by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

You can find further information on general plywood characteristics and architectural usage in the National Lumber Manufacturing Association, or the Architectural Graphic Standards.

1.4.0 Special-Purpose Plywood

There are other types of plywood available for specific purposes besides structural and sheathing. These include overlaid panels, decorative panels, and concrete form panels. Table 7-1 lists some of the various types of plywood with their suggested uses.

Table 7-1 — Softwood plywood grades for interior and exterior use.
Softwood Plywood Grades for Exterior Use
Face Back Inner
A-A A A C Outdoor where appearance of both sides is important.
A-B A A C Alternative for A-A, where appearance of one side is less important.
 A-C A C C Siding, soffits, fences. Face is finish grade.
B-C B C C For utility uses such as farm buildings, some kind of fences, etc.
C C C Excellent base for tile and linoleum, backing for wall coverings
C-C C C C Unsanded, for backing and rough construction exposed to weather.
Concrete forms
B   C Concrete forms. Re-use until wood literally wears out.
MDO B B C or C Plugged  Medium Density Overlay. Ideal for base for paint, siding, built-ins, signs, displays.
 HDO A or B A or B   High Density Overlay. Hard surface, no paint needed. For concrete forms, cabinets, counter tops, tanks.
Softwood Plywood Grades for Interior Use
Face Back Inner
A-A A A D Cabinet doors, built-ins, furniture where both sides show.
A-B A A D Alternative of A-A. Face is finish grade, back is solid and smooth.
 A-D A D D Finish grade face for paneling, built-ins, backing.
B-D B D D Utility grade. One paintable side. For backing, cabinet sides, etc.
Standard C D D Unsanded. Sheathing and structural uses such as temporary enclosures, subfloor.

1.5.0 Common Wood Substitutes

Many common substitutes for wood or plywood are available for use as construction material. Some are significantly less expensive than plywood; others are more suitable because of their decorative appearance and weather-resistant qualities.

1.5.1 Particleboard

1.5.2 Hardboard

1.5.3 Fiberboard

1.5.4 Gypsum Wallboard

Another type of gypsum wallboard has depressed or tapered edges. Finishers fill the joints with a compound (commonly called mud) and tape so the joints do not show, making the wallboard paintable. They may also use the compound (mud) to provide a texture to the smooth wall. This wallboard, commonly known as dry wall, is particularly useful in areas and spaces where the design calls for sound-deadening and fire-resistant materials.

1.6.0 Treatment

Decay, fungi, boring insects, weathering, or fire can destroy wood if it is not properly treated and installed. Treatment varies from project to project and more importantly, from one geographical area to another. Project specifications will usually provide information on any required type and quantity of treatment, but if not, the drawings should indicate any needed wood treatment.

Manufacturers’ commercial standards contain information on wood pretreated by the manufacturer. NAVFAC publications and specifications provide technical information and design requirements for the treatment of wood used in buildings and structures under NAVFAC’s cognizance.


Test Your Knowledge

1. Lumber is initially classified by _______.

A. Yard, Dressed, Timbers
B. Use, Size, Extent of Manufacture
 C. Structural, Factory, Rough
D. Worked, Dressed, Boards


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In a wood frame building or structure, the framework consists mostly of wood load-bearing members joined together to form an internal supporting structure, much like the skeleton of a human body. A complete set of drawings for a building will include large-scale details for any typical sections, joints, and other unusual construction features. Understanding the functions of the structural members of a frame building will enable you to make these drawings correctly and promptly.

2.1.0 Theory of Framing

Generally, a building has two main parts: the foundation and the superstructure, i.e., that part above the foundation. Commonly called the framing, the framework of a wooden superstructure has three subdivisions.

Sections 2.3.0, 2.4.0, and 2.5.0 present more information on these subdivisions.

Platform framing (Figure 7-8) (also called Western and Story-by-Story) and balloon framing (Figure 7-9) are the most common framing and construction methods in the United States and Canada. However, balloon framing has diminished in practical use because it requires longer materials. The striking difference between these two methods: Platform framing uses separate studs for each floor. These studs are anchored on a soleplate and attached to the floor below.

Figure 7-8 — Typical platform framing.

Figure 7-9 — Typical balloon framing.

Balloon framing extends the wall studs from the sill of the first floor to the top of the soleplate or end rafter of the second floor and the second floor joists sit upon a ledger.

2.2.0 Sill Framing and Layout

The first element of the superstructure and the lowest horizontal wood frame member is the sill, a piece of dimensional lumber laid flat and bolted down to the top of the foundation pier or wall. It is the first part of the frame to be set in place and provides a nailing base for the other adjoining members. It may extend all around the building, joined at the corners and spliced when necessary. The type of sill assembly selected depends upon the general type of construction methods used in the framework. Sill assembly is the term for the connection framing the studs to the sill, and they differ for platform and balloon framing.

Platform frame construction most frequently uses the box-sill assembly (Figure 7-10). In this type, the ends of joists butt against a header joist, which sits flush with the outer edge of the sill.

Figure 7-10 — Box-sill assembly for platform framing.

Figure 7-11 — Box-sill assembly for platform framing with brick veneer.

For platform framing with a brick veneer as exterior siding, the box sill is similar, except the sill, joist header, and joists recess to allow the brick to rest directly on the foundation wall. This may require a wider foundation wall.

Balloon-frame construction uses the T-sill and Eastern assemblies. Here, the studs anchor on the sill and are continuous in one piece from sill to roof line.

In a T-sill assembly for balloon framing, the header joist frames to the inside face of the studs with the joists sitting on the lip of the sill. (Figure 7-12) 

Figure 7-12 — T-sill assembly for balloon framing.

In an Eastern sill assembly for balloon framing, the joists sit with full bearing on the sill, flush with the outside face of the studs. The joists nail directly to the studs and the header is now a fire-stop header, cut to fit between the joists. (Figure 7-13)

Figure 7-13 — Eastern sill assembly for balloon framing.

2.3.0 Floor Framing

You must be familiar with a number of floor framing terms. (Figure 7-14)

• Joists or Beams---horizontal members that support the floors, depending upon the length of the SPAN (distance between the end supports). Joists are members less than 4 ft apart and beams are members 4 ft or more apart. The usual spacing for wood frame floor members is either 16 inches or 24 inches. O.C. Joists are usually 2 by 8, 2 by 10, or 2 by 12. Laminated joists or beams may be appropriate depending on the floor loading.

Figure 7-14 — Framing terms and floor openings.

2.3.1 Framing around Floor Openings

For any floor openings such as stairs, builders must cut the common joists and reinforce the opening with headers (at ends of joists) and trimmers (parallel to joists). See Figure 7-14. Specifications usually require headers and trimmers to be doubled— sometimes tripled. Headers up to 6 ft in length can be nailed; those longer than 6 ft are fastened with joist hangers.

2.3.2 Bridging

Bridging is the system of bracing joists to each other to hold them plumb and aligned. It also serves to distribute part of a concentrated load over several joists.

There are two types of bridging:

Figure 7-15 — Bridging.

Cross bridging consists of pairs of struts set diagonally between the joists. Strut stock comes in sizes of 1 by 3, 1 by 4, 2 by 2, and 2 by 4.

Solid bridging consists of pieces of joist-size stock set at right angles between the joists. They can be staggered for easier installation.

Builders use cross bridging more frequently, but solid bridging is more rigid.

All spans greater than 6 feet should be bridged

2.3.3 Subflooring

Subflooring is the next layer (or double layer) installed in platform framing. Typically it will be either boards (square-edge or tongue-and-grooved), or plywood 1/2 to 3/4 inch thick. (Figure 7-16).

Figure 7-16 — Typical floor framing with subflooring.

Subflooring serves as a working platform, a base for wall soleplates, and additional strength/stability for finish flooring. Builders may install subflooring either diagonally (most common) or at right angles to the joists. Diagonal subflooring lets the builder lay finish flooring either parallel to, or, more commonly, at right angles to, the joists. Changes of direction add rigidity to the building. For parquet finish flooring or finish flooring laid parallel to the joists, joist spacing should not exceed 16 inches. on center.

2.4.0 Wall Framing

Wall framing details will depend on whether the builder is using platform or balloon construction. Builders employ the platform framing method more often due to its simplicity. However, the terminology remains the same for both methods. (Figure 7-17)

Figure 7-17 — Typical wall frame for platform framing.

Studs, cripples, trimmers, headers, fire blocks (fire stops), top plates, and soleplates compose a typical wall frame. The wall-framing members used in conventional construction are generally nominal 2 by 4 inches but may be 2 by 6 inches depending on local insulation thickness requirements. The requirements for either are good stiffness, good nail-holding ability, freedom from warp, reasonable dryness (about 15- percent moisture content), and ease of working. 

2.4.1 Partition

Partition walls divide the interior space of a building. In most cases, builders form them as part of the building, but remodeling efforts often include changes in partition walls. There are two types of partition walls:

Framing for partition walls, including headers and trimmers for openings and doors is the same as for outside walls. However, there are additional elements required to accommodate interior finish.

Figure 7-18 — Typical Corner Posts and T-Posts for interior finish.

 2.4.2 Braces

Braces stiffen framed construction and help buildings resist the twisting or straining effects of wind or storm. Good bracing keeps corners square and plumb. It also helps prevent warping, sagging, and shifts resulting from lateral and external forces that would otherwise tend to distort the frame.

Diagonal bracing is most effective when installed at a 45° to 60° angle and it can be done after the wall has been squared and is still lying on the subfloor. There are three common methods of bracing frame structures: (Figure 7-19)

Figure 7-19 — Typical types of bracing.

2.5.0 Roof Framing

To shed water, all roofs must slope. There are a multitude roof styles and designs to meet a designer’s and an owner’s interest. The four most common are also the simplest to build. (Figure 7- 20)

Figure 7-20 — Most common types of pitched roofs. 

2.5.1 Roof Pitch

To calculate roof pitch you must be familiar with the following terms. (Figure 7-21)

Figure 7-21 — Roof framing terms.

The pitch (amount of slope) of a roof is expressed as a fraction in which the numerator is the unit rise and the denominator is the unit span. By common practice, unit run is always 12 inches so unit span is always 24 inches (unit run x 2).

Expressed in equation form:


Pitch = Unit Rise  = Unit Rise
Unit Span 2 x Unit Run

Suppose a roof rises 8 units for every 12 units of run—meaning that unit rise is 8 and unit run is 12. Since the unit span is 24, (unit run x 2) the pitch of the roof is 8/24, or 1/3. Figure 7-21 provides a visual expression with a framing square.

Construction drawings indicate the pitch of a roof by a small roof triangle. The triangle is drawn to scale so that the length of the horizontal side equals the unit run (which is always 12), and the length of the vertical side equals the unit rise. With those two figures, the builder will know the pitch.

2.5.2 Rafter Layout

Rafters are framing members that support a roof. They do for the roof what joists do for the floor and what the studs do for the wall. They are generally inclined members spaced from 16 to 48 inches apart that vary in material size, depending on their intended length and spacing apart.

The type of roof and the intended span will determine the fastening method for the top of the rafters. The bottoms of the rafters rest on the wall top plates, which provides a connecting link between the wall and the roof and is really a functional part of both.

The structural relationship between the rafters and the wall is the same for all types of roofs. Rafters are NOT framed into the top plate. They are simply nailed to it, or in some instances, cut to fit the plate.

In hasty construction, builders merely lay the rafters on the top plate and nail them in place. Rafters may extend a short distance beyond the wall to form eaves and protect the sides of the building. Refer to Figure 7-22 for a typical roof framing plan and relate the figure to the following rafter terms.


Figure 7-22 — Typical roof framing plan.

A Bird’s-Mouth Cut is often notched into a rafter with a projection (or eave).

The plumb cut of the bird’s-mouth that bears against the side of the rafter plate is called the heel cut, whereas the seat cut bears on top of the bird’s-mouth.

Figure 7-23 — Bird’s-mouth cut.

Collar ties are horizontal members used as reinforcement in gable or double-pitch roof rafters. In a finished attic, these ties may function as ceiling joists.

Figure 7-24 — Typical collar ties.

Purlins serve as nailing or connecting members when rafter spacing is far apart.


Figure 7-25 — Typical roof purlins.

Primarily used with metal buildings, purlins may also apply to light wood frame structures when the entire roof framing design incorporates appropriate sheathing and nailing for rigidity.

There are several roof designs that call for a variety of framing methods and an even greater variety of rafter arrangements. Figures 7-26 through 7-33 present only a few of the simplest and most common. Look to see how many of the examples include bird’s mouth cuts.


Figure 7-26 — Flat and shed roof framings. 


Figure 7-27 — Gable roof framing.


Figure 7-28 — Equal-pitch roof framing. 


Figure 7-29 — Addition roof framing.


Figure 7-30 — Gable dormer framing without sidewalls. 


Figure 7-31 — Gable dormer framing with sidewalls.


Figure 7-32 — Types of jack rafters. 


Figure 7-33 — Typical cripple jacks.

2.5.3 Roof Trusses

When a roof span is too great, or the anticipated roof load (the roof itself, wind, ice, snow) will exceed the capabilities of a simple rafter roof, builders use a truss, an engineered structural frame. Truss designs to accommodate spanning distances and desired roof design are almost limitless. Figure 7-34 shows a number of roof truss designs.


Figure 7-34 — Variety of roof trusses.

The King Post-truss is the simplest type of truss with an upper and lower chord and a vertical center post The W-truss is perhaps the most widely used. It uses four web members assembled in the shape of the letter W instead of a center post. For structures with an interior sloped ceiling, such as a vaulted ceiling, the Scissors-truss is appropriate. 

In engineered trusses, gusset plates (metal plates or plywood pieces) connect chords and webs with glue, nails, or bolts. Engineered truss manufacturers usually use specially designed and manufactured gussets. (Figure 7-35)


Figure 7-35 — Sample engineered truss

Test Your Knowledge

2. In a wood frame building or structure, wood load-bearing members join together to form a supporting structure. Generally, a building has ___ main parts called_____.

A. 3, Floor Frame, Wall Frame, Roof Frame
B. 2, Platform Frame, Balloon Frame
C. 2, Foundation, Superstructure


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Building finish is that part of a project that typically completes the project but has nothing to do with the structural elements of the building. General practice divides the finish work into exterior (outside) and interior (inside) finish. Builders refer to this stage of construction to as finish carpentry. Other trade disciplines have a “Finish” stage to their contributions also. Both the electricians and plumbers have a “Rough-in” (nonstructural) and “Finish” element to their work. Figure 7-36 provides typical terminology for exterior finish carpentry.


Figure 7-36 — Typical terms for exterior finish carpentry.


3.1.0 Exterior Finish

The principal exterior finish items are the roof sheathing and covering, the wall sheathing and/or siding, and the exterior trim. Builders may install the roof sheathing and wall sheathing at the same time, but standard practice dictates that the roof sheathing installation occur first to allow interior work to proceed during inclement weather. In many cases, the exterior wall will already have paneling as part of the structural element of a building, and sheathing the roof provides the next stage to “drying-in” the building. The exterior finish for the walls in this case will consist only of the siding.

3.1.1 Roof Sheathing and Roof Covering

Roof sheathing is the covering over the rafters or trusses and usually consists of boards, plywood, or oriented strand board (OSB). Local codes will determine the required thickness of the roof sheathing, but 1/2 to 3/4 inch is typical for plywood and OSB, with 3/4 to 1 inch typical for board lumber. Sheathing should be thick enough to span the supports and provide a solid base for fastening the roofing materials. If the design requires boards for roof sheathing, generally, it will be third grade species of lumber, such as pines, redwoods, and hemlocks.

In damp climates when the finish roof consists of wood shingles or shakes, spaced roof boards provide the sheathing. When using asphalt shingles, metal sheet roofing, or other roofing materials that require continuous support, builders should lay the roof sheathing closed (without spacing). When plywood or OSB roof sheathing is used, the grain should run perpendicular to the rafters. (Figure 7-37)


Figure 7-37 — Typical roof sheathing.

Pitched-roof covering can be a variety of materials: wood, asphalt shingles, tile, slate, galvanized iron (GI) sheets, or one of several other sheet materials. However, in all cases an asphalt-saturated felt underpayment called roofing felt goes down over the roof sheathing before the roof covering installation.

The roofing felt serves three basic purposes:

Figure 7-38 shows the typical method of laying an asphalt-shingle roof with metal edge flashing to protect gable ends. Roofing rolls are usually 36 inches wide with a 2 inch to 4 inch overlap. The completed roof typically leaves 5 inches of each shingle exposed to the weather


Figure 7-38 — Typical asphalt-shingle roof. 

Figure 7-39 shows typical installation of wood shingles. Wood shingles are available in three standard lengths: 16, 18, and 24 inches with the18-inch length perhaps the most popular. Wood shakes are applied the same as wood shingles.


Figure 7-39 — Typical wood shingle/shake installation.

The primary difference between shakes and other types of shingles is that shakes are split while most shingles are sawn on all sides.

On flat or low-pitched roofs, the roof covering is usually built-up. Built-up roofing consists of several layers (plies) of felt, set in a hot binder of melted pitch or asphalt. The number of plies they contain always designates built-up roofs.

Figure 7-40 shows a five-ply built-up roof. Note that the building paper is in addition to the number of designated plies, and the spacing varies for paper, nailer, and hot mop layers. Notice also the use of aggregate surfacing materials, such as gravel, slag, marble, or other suitable materials, to provide a good weathering surface and protect the bitumen from sunlight and external heat.


Figure 7-40 — Typical built-up roof installation.

3.1.2 Flashing

Flashing is specially constructed pieces of corrosion-resistant metal or other materials used to protect buildings from water seepage. Its purpose is to prevent moisture (rain or melted snow) from penetrating the junctions where materials change. Builders should install flashing at roof ridges, chimneys, roof-wall intersections, over exposed windows and doors, and at changes of material or direction on sidings. Figures 7-41 through 7-43 demonstrate flashing applications.


Figure 7-41 — Typical flashing at roofing edge and build-up.

Flashing materials used on roofs may be asphalt-saturated felt, metal, or plastic. Felt flashing is generally used at ridges, hips, and valleys. However, when available, metal flashing, either aluminum, galvanized steel, or copper, is superior to felt.


Figure 7-42 — Typical flashing at roofing valley and material change.


Figure 7-43 — Typical flashing at siding change of materials and direction.

3.1.3 Wall Sheathing

The exterior wall sheathing is often part of the structural element of a building. For the exterior finish work, the wall covering term is wall siding or just siding. Many local building codes require “house wrap” over the wall sheathing before the installation of exterior siding. The house wrap may be building paper (think tar/felt paper) or commercially available spun-bonded synthetic fiber material. It provides a second layer of weather and wind protection between your wall sheathing and your wall siding.

Exterior wall siding can be stone, brick, stucco, masonry, vinyl, aluminum, plastic ,fiber cement, plywood, fiberboard, veneers, hardboard, paneling, wood shingles, numerous other materials, or any combination of materials. There are too many options to cover in this lesson, as the only limit is the imagination of the designer, be it the owner or an architect.

However, for wooden board siding here are two main general types: Drop Siding and Common Siding. Drop siding joins edge to edge (rather than overlapping). Common siding consists of boards that overlap each other like shingles. (Figure 7-44)


Figure 7-44 —Typical drop and common siding.

Clapboards are boards not more than 4 feet long. Boards in longer lengths but not more than 8 inches wide are called bevel siding. Builders may install some sidings in either a horizontal or vertical direction if adequate nailing areas were considered in the design. Figure 7-45 shows three different styles of vertical siding application. Figure


7-45 — Vertical board siding styles.

3.1.4 Exterior Trim

When installing the roof sheathing to “dry-in” a structure, the builder must consider the exterior finish at and just below the eaves of the roof, called the cornice.

The practical purpose of a cornice is to seal the joint between wall and roof against weather penetration. Cornices may be simple, open, flat boxed or slope boxed. Figure 7-46 shows a simple type of cornice, used on a roof with no rafter overhang.


Figure 7-46 — Simple cornice.

Figure 7-47 shows an open cornice. Note that in the simple and open cornices, the sheathing and frieze go to the underneath side of the roof sheathing. This requires a backing between the rafters above the top plate. However, the builder must allow for ventilation similar to closed cornices.


Figure 7-47 — Typical open cornice.

Note in the closed cornices, boxed or sloped, that the frieze board goes to the underneath side of the rafters. (Figure 7-48) 


Figure 7-48 — Typical closed cornices, boxed and sloped.

A Cornice Return is a short extension of a cornice along the gable-end wall. (Figure 7-49).


Figure 7-49 — Cornice return, gable fascia and rake molding.

Eaves are the rafter-end edges of a roof.

Rakes are the gable-end edges of a roof.

A hip roof has eaves all the way around. A gable roof has two eaves and two rakes.

Just as the frieze trims the eave side at the roof, rake molding and fascia trim the gable side at the roof.

3.1.5 Gutters and Downspouts

Gutters and downspouts keep rainwater away from the foundation of the building and need to be part of the building design. (Figure 7-50).


Figure 7-50 — Typical gutter and downspout.

They may be made of galvanized metal, copper, aluminum, or plastic. Some metal types have a factory-applied enamel finish.

Some gutters are built into the cornice design and connected to the downspouts (Figure 7-51) The run off should flow into a “wet line” that caries the water away from the structure into a drain or storm sewer.


Figure 7-51 — Typical gutter as part of the cornice.

3.2.0 Interior Finish

The interior finish consists mainly of the coverings applied to the rough inside walls, ceiling, and subfloors. Other interior finish items are ceiling and wall coverings, doorframes and window frames, stairs, floor covering, and wood trims. When required, installation of kitchen and built-in cabinets are considered part of the interior finish.

3.2.1 Ceiling and Wall Covering

Ceiling and wall covering is broadly divided into plaster and drywall covering. Though some builders still use “lath-and-plaster” finish in construction today, drywall finish has become the most popular.

A plaster covering requires a "plaster base" and a "plaster ground" before installation. The plaster base provides the plane-surface base to which the plaster is applied. The plaster grounds, thin wooden strips on end, serve as a depth guides for the plasterers to ensure uniform plaster thickness around door frames, window frames, and behind casings. In addition to the preparation required, application itself involves water and a drying period of 2-3 weeks between layers with the typical application in 3 layers (Scratch, brown, and finish).

Drywall covering is a general term applied to sheets or panels of wood, plywood, fiberboard, and the most accepted and understood term, gypsum wallboard, or “sheetrock”. Drywall finish requires only short drying time since application requires little, if any, water. However, a gypsum drywall demands a moderately low moisture content in the framing members to prevent “nail-pops.” Nail-pops result when frame members dry out to moisture equilibrium, causing the nail head to form small “humps” on the surface of the board. Stud alignment is also important for single-layer gypsum finish to prevent a wavy, uneven appearance. Thus, there are advantages and disadvantages to both plaster and gypsum drywall finishes. The choice should consider initial cost as well as maintenance.

Thin sheet materials, such as gypsum board or plywood, require that studs and ceiling joists have good alignment to provide a smooth, even surface.

The wood sheathing on exterior walls often corrects any misaligned studs. For interior partitions and ceilings, depending on the alignment of the studs and joists, a “strongback” (Figure 7-52) may be necessary for proper alignment.


Figure 7-52 — Typical ceiling “strongback.”

Gypsum wallboard is the most commonly used wall and ceiling covering in construction today. Because gypsum is nonflammable and durable, it is appropriate for application in most building types. Sheets of drywall are nailed or screwed into place, and nail indentions or “dimples” are filled with joint compound (mud). Joints between adjoining sheets are built up with special tape and several layers (usually three) of joint compound. Drywall is easily installed, though joint work can be tedious. (Figure 7-53)


Figure 7-53 — Typical drywall installation.

Drywall varies in composition, thickness, and edge shape. The most common sizes with tapered edges are 1/2 inch or 5/8 inch in 4 feet by 8 feet and by 4 feet by 12 feet sheets. Type X gypsum board has special additives that make it fire resistant.

Figure 7-54 shows typical application of other types of drywall finishes, vertical wood paneling, and tongue and groove horizontal paneling.


Figure 7-54 — Additional drywall applications.

A variety of ceiling systems are available to change the appearance of a room, lower a ceiling, finish off exposed joints, or provide acoustical control.

Suspended acoustical ceiling systems can integrate the functions of lighting, air distribution, and fire protection. (Figure 7-55)


Figure 7-55 — Typical suspended acoustical ceiling.

Acoustical tiles are available in 12-to 30-inch widths, 12- to 60- inch lengths, and 3/16- to 3/4- inch thicknesses, for use with the other grid system components. (Figure 7-56, View A)  As an alternative to a suspended acoustical ceiling, depending on the type of ceiling or roof construction, builders may install tiles directly in various ways, such as with wood strips nailed across the ceiling joists, roof trusses, or drywall. (Figure 7-56). 


Figure 7-56 — Typical grid system components and alternative installation.

3.2.2 Insulation and Vapor Barriers

Heating (or air conditioning) has important effects upon the occupants of a building. Insulation improves both functions for comfort conditions and fuel savings. Materials commonly used for insulation fall into these classifications: blanket, batt, loose-fill, reflective, and rigid.

Manufactured in a variety of forms and types, their insulating values vary with the type of construction, kinds of construction materials used, and thickness. Figure 7-57 shows different types of insulation commonly used in construction.


Figure 7-57 — Typical types of insulation.

Vapor barriers help keep moisture from seeping through wall, floor, and ceiling materials. Among the effective vapor-barrier materials are asphalt laminated papers, aluminum foil, and plastic film. Most blanket and batt insulations have paper-backed aluminum foil on one side to serve as a vapor barrier. Foil-backed gypsum lath or gypsum boards are also available and serve as excellent vapor barriers.

Most climates in the United States recommend barrier placement on the inside face of the exterior wall, but some climatic conditions recommend the reverse. For the deep-south, the U.S. Department of Energy recommends vapor barrier placement on the exterior side of walls (Figure 7-58).


Figure 7-58 — Vapor Barrier Placement.

Where other types of membrane vapor barriers were not installed during construction, several coats of paint provide some protection. Aluminum primer with several coats of flat wall (latex) or oil paint is minimally effective in retarding vapor transmission.  By Geographical Location. (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

Condensation and moisture facilitate decay, attracting termites or carpenter ants depending on the geographical location. Even where vapor barriers are used, condensation of moisture vapor may occur in the attic, roof spaces, or crawl spaces, if any, under the building or porch. Ventilation is the most practical method of removing condensation that may encourage decay. Common practice is to install ventilators. They can be part of the exterior design or placed in the eave soffits. For a building with a foundation wall, vents are part of the initial concrete pour.

Figures 7-59 and 7-60 show several types of venting.


Figure 7-59 — Typical building ventilation at attics and foundations.


Figure 7-60 — Typical building ventilation at soffits.

3.2.3 Stairs

Treads, which people walk on, and stringers, which support the treads, are the two principal elements in a stairway. The simplest type of stairway consists of these two elements alone.

Figure 7-61 shows commonly used terms for an interior finished stairway. The stairway has three stringers, each of which is cut out of a single timber. Cutout or sawed stringer is the common term for this type of stairs. On some stairways, the treads and risers nail to triangular stair blocks attached to straight-edged stringers.


Figure 7-61 — Typical stair terms.

A stairway that continues in the same straight line from one floor to the next is a Straight-Flight stairway. (Figure 7-61). A Change stairway is one that changes direction one or more times between floors when space does not permit a straight-flight. A change stairway in which there are platforms between sections is a Platform stairway.

A building may have principal stairs and service stairs.

Principal stairs are those extending between floors above the basement and below the attic floor.

Service stairs just provide access to a room such as porch, basement, or attic.

The lower ends of the stringers on porch, basement, and other stairs that anchor on concrete use a kickplate (Figure 7-62).


Figure 7-62 — Typical kickplate.

3.2.4 Finish Flooring

Wood finish flooring and resilient finish flooring are the two main categories for flooring.

Most wood finish flooring comes in tongue-and-groove for edge-joining; some are end-matched as well. Usually recessed on the lower face, wood flooring strips typically toenail through the subflooring (usually plywood) into joists. (Figure 7-63)


Figure 7-63 — Typical toenailing wood finish flooring.

For maintenance and durability, resilient flooring has supplanted wood finish flooring. Most of it in the form of 6 by 6, 9 by 9, or 12 by 12 floor tiles. Materials commonly used are asphalt, linoleum, cork, rubber, and vinyl. With each type of tile, the manufacturer recommends an appropriate type of adhesive for attaching the tile to the subflooring. On other areas subject to a high degree of dampness, ceramic or glazed interior tile is commonly used. Ceramic tiles are used to cover all or part of bathrooms, shower rooms, and some kitchen floors.

3.2.5 Doors

Standard doors and combination doors (storm and screen) are millwork items usually fully assembled at the factory and ready for use. All wood components are treated with a water-repellent preservative to provide protection against the elements. Manufacturers offer interior and exterior doors in a multitude of different designs to fit the style of almost any building. They may be solid or hollow core. (Figure 7-64)


Figure 7-64 — Typical exterior and interior door styles.

Panel doors are the traditional pattern type, consisting of stiles (solid vertical members), rails (solid cross members), and filler panels in a number of designs.

Flush doors consist of thin plywood faces over a framework of wood with a wood block or particleboard core.

Exterior flush doors use a solid-core rather than hollow-core type to minimize warping caused by a difference in moisture content on the exposed and unexposed faces of the door. Exterior doors require weatherstripping to reduce both air infiltration and frosting of the glass on the storm door during cold weather.

Exterior doors are usually 1 3/4 inch thick and not less than 6 feet 8 inches high. The main entrance door is 3 feet wide, and the side or rear door is normally 2 feet 8 inches wide. The exterior trim can vary from a simple casing (the trim used around the interior edges of door openings and windows) to a molded or plain pilaster.

Interior panel doors (colonial and five-cross type) are similar to the exterior doors. Novelty doors, such as the folding door unit, are commonly used for closets because they provide ventilation and take less swing room.

Interior flush doors are usually a hollow core of light framework covered with thin plywood or hardboard. Most standard interior doors are 1 3/8 inch thick.

Hinged doors should open or swing in the direction of natural entry, against a blank wall, and should not be obstructed by other swinging doors. Doors should NEVER be hinged to swing into a hallway. Figure 7-65 shows the principal parts of the interior finish of an exterior doorframe (note the sill).


Figure 7-65 — Principal parts of a finish doorframe.

On an inside door, the frame consists only of the side and head jambs (and no sill). The casings are part of the interior trim. On an outside door, the frame includes the side and head casings. Figure 7-66 shows section detail drawings of an exterior combination doorframe.


Figure 7-66 — Typical exterior door and frame details.

3.2.6 Windows

While windows have a surface on the exterior of the building, they are part of the interior finish. Windows, like doors, come in a large variety of options, and you need to be familiar with the terminology.

Figure 7-67 shows a typical casement window from an exterior view.


 Figure 7-67 — Out-swinging casement window cross sections:
A. Head jamb; B. Meeting stiles; C. Side jambs; D. Sill.

Finish frames for all of these windows are similar. Like a finish doorframe, they consist of side jambs, head jamb, sill, and outside casing (the inside casing being considered part of the inside-wall covering).

However, a double-hung window frame contains some items that are NOT used on frames for other types of windows. Figure 7-68 shows section drawing details for a double-hung window.

Figure 7-68 — Double-hung windows cross sections:
A. Head jamb; B. Meeting rails; C. Side jambs; D. Sill.

Construction drawing schedules give the dimensions, type, and number of lights (panes of glass) for each window in the structure. For example, No. 3, DH, 2 feet 4 inches by 3 feet 10 inches 12 LTS means window No. 3 (it will have this number on any drawing in which it appears) is a double-hung window with a finished opening, of 2 feet 4 inches by 3 feet 10 inches with 12 lights of glass. Arrangement of the lights will show in any view in which the window appears. On one of the lights, a figure such as 8/10 will appear, meaning each light of glass has nominal dimensions of 8 by 10 inches. Figure 7-69 shows a double-hung window sash and the names of its parts.


Figure 7-69 — Parts of a double-hung window sash.

3.2.7 Wood Trims

Depending on the selection (plain or ornate), the interior wood trims can be the most prominent features of the interior. The inside door and the window casings are at constant eye level, but baseboards are another feature designed to finish off the interior. Baseboards cover the joint between the inside walls and the finish floors which are usually dissimilar materials. Crown (ceiling) molding is not as common since often the wall and ceiling are the same material. Bur crown molding can complete a project with a professional look. Base and crown moldings are available in several widths and forms. Figure 7-70 shows a typical base molding configuration; Figure 7-71 a typical crown molding.


Figure 7-70 — Typical base molding configuration.


Figure 7-71 — Typical crown molding. 

Test Your Knowledge

3. Finish carpentry involves completing the___________.

A. Exterior structural elements only
B. Interior structural elements only
C. Exterior and Interior structural elements
D. Exterior and interior non-structural elements


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Hardware is a general term covering a wide variety of accessories, usually made of metal or plastic and ordinarily used in building construction. Hardware includes both finishing and rough hardware.

Other items may be considered hardware. If you are not sure whether an item is hardware or what its function is, refer to a commercial text, such as the Architectural Graphic Standards in your engineering technical library.


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The devices used in fastening or connecting members together to form structures depend on the material the members are made of. The most common fastening devices are nails, screws, and bolts.

5.1.0 Nails

There are many types of nails. Their intended use and form determines their classification. The standard nail is made of steel wire. The wire nail is round-shafted, straight, pointed, and may vary in size, weight, head size and shape, type of point, and finish. The holding power of nails is less than that of screws or bolts. Common wire nail and box nail (Figure 7-72) are the same, except that box nail wire sizes are one or two numbers smaller for a given length than those of the common nail.


Figure 7-72 — Common wire nails.

Besides the general-purpose nails, there are special-purpose nails. Examples include wire brads, plasterboard nails, concrete nails, and masonry nails. The wire brad has a needlepoint; the plasterboard nail has a large-diameter flathead. The concrete nail is hardened for driving in concrete. So is the masonry nail, although its body is usually grooved or spiraled.

Lengths of wire nails NOT more than 6 inches long are designated by the penny system, in which the letter d is the symbol for a penny. Thus, a 6d nail means a sixpenny nail. The number expresses the wire thickness, which relates to standard wire gauge; the larger the number, the thicker the wire. Figure 7-72 gives nail sizes (penny and length in inches), gauges, and approximate number of nails per pound. The penny does not designate any nails over 6 in; those are called spikes.

5.2.0 Screws

A wood screw is a fastener that threads into wood. Type of head and material from which they are made designates their description; for example, flathead brass or roundhead steel. Figure 7-73 shows some common types of screws.


Figure 7-73 — Common types of screws.

Its length in inches and a number relating to its body diameter (the unthreaded part) designate the size of a wood screw. This number runs from 0 (about 1/15-inch diameter) to 24 (about 3/8-inch diameter).

Lag screws (lag bolts) are often required where ordinary wood screws are too short or too light, or where spikes do not hold securely. They are available in lengths of 1 to 16 inches and in body diameters of 1/4 to 1 inch Their heads are either square or hexagonal allowing for more torque advantage for installation.

Sheet metal screws and thread-cutting screws assemble sheet metal, sheet aluminum, and other thin metal parts. Sheet metal screws are self-tapping. They can fasten metals up to about 28 gauge. Thread-cutting screws can fasten metals that are 1/4 inchc thick or less.

5.3.0 Bolts and Drift Bolts

A bolt is a fastener having a head at one end and threads at the other, as shown in Figure 7-74. Instead of threading into wood like a screw, it goes through a bored hole and is held by a nut.


Figure 7-74 — Common bolts and Drift bolts (Driftpins).


Figure 7-75 — Corrugated fasteners.

5.4.0 Structural Connectors and Fastening Systems

Many modern NCF projects will utilize commercially available metal structural connectors and fastening systems designed and fabricated by the Simpson StrongTie® Company. These are structural products that help engineers design and build safer and stronger projects and buildings and will be called out in plans as what and where they are to be used in construction. While there are hundreds of different connector products you should be familiar with the major categories for fastening/connecting wood structural members to wood and concrete. These include structural connectors used in trusses, joist hangers used in floors, straps and ties for securely connecting frame walls to rafters, and window and door headers. Anchor bolts or embedded hold-downs for single and multi-story buildings. All structural connectors or anchor tiedown systems are made from hot-dip galvanized (HDG) or stainless steel to address corrosion resistance requirements. See Figure 7-76 for just a few examples of possible structural connector applications.


Figure 7-76 — Structural connector applications.

5.4.1 Wood-to-Wood and Wood-to-Concrete

The use of connectors is designed to form a continuous load path from foundation to the roof system. This load path is critical because it helps hold a structure together when high winds try to pull it apart. Building codes require structures to be built with a continuous load path and the designs vary with code. Straps are designed to transfer tension loads and resist uplift rafter to wall, while the holddown will resist uplift wall to foundation.

When a building is not built on a slab, you will need to utilize some sort of floor joist hanger. Depending on what type of wall you have will determine the type of hanger you must use. See Figure 7-77 for a couple of examples.


Figure 7-77 — Joist hangers.

If your building calls for some sort of post construction, you will be faced with the proper method for installing posts. The proper type of post cap and base (Figure 7-78) is important, and in some cases local code may call for a particular type. 


Figure 7-78 — Examples of post caps and bases. 

When you are attaching horizontal and vertical lumber, you will be required to make a good bond between the two or more pieces. Utilizing a tie (Figure 7-79) is a good method, and will make it easier to calculate the angles and nail placement.


Figure 7-79 — Examples of ties.

5.4.2 Connector Fastening

Many Simpson Strong-Tie connectors have been designed and tested for use with specific types and sizes of nails. Some of these nails are built by the Simpson StrongTie® Company as in the N54A ring shank nail in Figure 7-80.


Figure 7-80 — Structural connector nails.

The specified quantity, type and size of nail must be installed in the correct holes on the connector to achieve published loads. Other factors such as nail material and finish are also important. Incorrect fastener selection or installation can compromise connector performance and could lead to failure. On projects where specific structural connectors are required, the types of nails to be used during construction will also be specified.

5.5.0 Glue

Glue, one of the oldest materials for fastening, if applied properly, will form a joint that is stronger than the wood itself. Probably one of the best types of glue for joint work and furniture construction is animal glue, made from hides. Other types of glue are extracted from fish, vegetables, casein, plastic resin, and blood albumin. Glue can be obtained commercially in a variety of forms—liquid, ground, chipped, flaked, powdered, or formed into sticks.


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The construction trades use terminology and stages of construction for wood and light frame structures that may be unfamiliar to you. They are well-established terms that provide a common language for all stages and personnel on a project. The more familiar and comfortable with the language of construction you become the more confident and valuable you will become to your unit, to the Navy and to yourself.


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Review Questions

1. Which of the following construction materials is considered the most often used and the most important?

A. Wood
B. Steel
C. Concrete
D. Plastic

2. For small construction projects that do NOT have written specifications included, where should you be able to find the type and classification of wood?

A. In the sheets attached to the drawings
B. In the drawings themselves
C. In the bill of materials
D. In the special standards

3. In construction, the terms “wood,” “lumber” and “timber” have distinct and separate meanings. Which of the following definitions is an accurate description?

A. Wood is a soft, fibrous substance
B. Timber is lumber with a dimension of not less than 5 inches
C. Lumber is trees that have not been cut
D. Wood is lumber that has been made into manufactured products

4. Which of the following descriptions best defines “Millwork”?

A. Wood selected for sawmill work
B. Timber made into lumber
C. Lumber made into manufactured products
D. Wood after it has been through the sawmill

5. In what way, if any, can the nominal size of lumber be compared to its dressed size?

A. It is larger
B. It is the same
C. It is smaller
D. It cannot be compared

6. What designation applies to wood surfaced on two sides only?

A. S2S
B. S2E
C. SS2
D. 2SS

7. In which of the following ways is lumber designated on drawings and purchase orders?

A. Dressed only
B. Nominal only
C. Dressed or nominal, whichever you chose

8. When classified according to use, manufactured lumber falls into what three categories?

A. Boards, dimension, and timbers
B. Rough, dressed, and worked
C. Yard, structural, and factory
D. Boards, shop, and yard

9. When classified according to size, manufactured lumber falls into what three categories?

A. Boards, dimension, and timbers
B. Rough, dressed, and worked
C. Yard, structural, and factory
D. Boards, shop, and yard

10. When classified according to extent of manufacture, manufactured lumber falls into what three categories?

  • A. Boards, dimension, and timbers
  • B. Rough, dressed, and worked
  • C. Yard, structural, and factory
  • D. Boards, shop, and yard
  • 11. What are the two major grades for yard lumber?

    A. Finish and Common
    B. Select and Common
    C. Finish and Utility
    D. Select and Utility

    12. Which type of lumber is primarily graded by its allowable stresses?

    A. Factory
    B. Structural
    C. Shop
    D. Yard

    13. What lumber grade is considered suitable as watertight lumber?

    A. No. 1 common
    B. No. 2 common
    C. Grade A select
    D. Grade B select 

    14. What is the minimum grade that lumber must meet to be considered grain-tight?

    A. No. 1 common
    B. No. 2 common
    C. Grade A select
    D. Grade B select

    15. What formula should you use to find the board foot measurement of lumber?

    A. Thickness (inches) x Width (inches) x Length (inches) 12
    B. Thickness (inches) x Width (inches) x Length (yards) 36
    C. Thickness (inches) x Width (inches) x Length (feet) 12
    D. Thickness (feet) x Width (feet) x Length (feet) 12

    16. Which of the following dimensions should you use to compute the amount of board feet in a dressed 2- by 4-inch board?

    A. 1 3/4 by 3/4 in
    B. 2 by 4 in
    C. 1 5/8 by 3 5/8 in
    D. 1 7/8 by 3 5/8 in

    17. How are the laminations (pieces) fastened together when you laminate lumber?

    A. Nailed and glued together, with the grain of all pieces running perpendicular
    B. Nailed or glued together, with the grain of all pieces running parallel
    C. Nailed, bolted, or glued together, with the grain of all pieces running perpendicular
    D. Nailed, bolted, or glued together, with the grain of all pieces running parallel

    18. Plywood is generally made with an ___number of plies with grains running ______.

    A. even, parallel
    B. even, perpendicular
    C. odd, parallel
    D. odd, perpendicular

    19. For which of the following purposes is plywood used?

    A. Formwork
    B. Sheathing
    C. Furniture
    D. Each of the above

    20. What are the two most common sizes of plywood sheets?

    A. 3 by 6 ft and 4 by 8 ft
    B. 4 by 8 ft and 4 by 10 ft
    C. 4 by 8 ft and 4 by 12 ft
    D. 4 by 10 ft and 4 by 12 ft

    21. How are plywood panel grades generally designated?

    A. By the grade of veneer on the face only
    B. By the kind of glue only
    C. By the grade of veneer on the face and back only
    D. By the kind of glue and the grade of veneer on the face and back

    22. What does the number 24 represent when index numbers 48/24 appear on a grading identification stamp?

    A. Minimum on-center spacing of supports for subfloors
    B. Maximum on-center spacing of supports for roof decking
    C. Maximum on-center spacing of supports for subfloors
    D. Maximum on-center spacing of supports for wall studs

    23. Which type of plywood is recommended for use in box beams, gusset plates, and stressed-skin panels?

    A. Standard
    B. Decorative
    C. Overlaid
    D. Structural

    24. Which of the following types of wood substitute provides good fire resistance?

    A. Fiberboard
    B. Gypsum wallboard
    C. Particleboard
    D. Hardboard

    25. The type and amount of wood treatment is normally given in the project specifications. When no written specifications exist, where should you be able to find the wood treatment required?

    A. Bill of materials
    B. Commercial standards
    C. Drawings
    D. American Plywood Association

    26. The framework of a wooden superstructure has three distinct framing subdivisions. They are the ________.

    A. platform, balloon, and roof
    B. platform, wall, and roof
    C. floor, wall, and roof
    D. floor, wall, and balloon

    27. What is the first wood superstructure member to be set in place?

    A. Header
    B. Joist
    C. Soleplate
    D. Sill

    28. What is the striking difference between platform framing and balloon framing?

    A. --studs go from soleplate to top plate Platform—separate studs go from floor to floor, Balloon
    B. --studs go from soleplate to top plate Balloon—separate studs go from floor to floor, Platform
    C. Platform--joists support the floor, Balloon--beams support the floor
    D. Balloon--joists support the floor, Platform--beams support the floor

    29. What is the difference between a common joist and a cripple joist?

    A. A cripple joist extends the full span, but a common joist does not.
    B. A common joist extends the full span, but a cripple joist does not.
    C. A cripple joist may be supported by a girder, but a common joist is never supported by a girder.
    D. Common joists are supported by pilasters, while cripple joists are not.

    30. At a door opening in an exterior wood-framed wall, the names of the horizontal members that connect at the (a) top and (b) bottom of the cripple studs are_________.

    A. (a) header (b) soleplate
    B. (a) top plates (b) soleplate
    C. (a) top plates (b) header
    D. (a) header (b) subsill

    31. Bridging is a bracing system to keep the _____ plumb and aligned.

    A. studs
    B. rafters
    C. joists
    D. headers

    32. Which of the following method(s) is/are commonly used to brace wood frame structures?

    A. Diagonal bracing
    B. Let-in bracing
    C. Cut-in bracing
    D. All of the above

    33. What is the rise per unit of run for a 1/4 pitch roof?

    A. 12 in
    B. 6 in
    C. 8 in
    D. 4 in

    34. A ___________ rafter extends from top plates to the ridgeboard at right angles to the plates.

    A. Common
    B. Valley
    C. Hip
    D. Cripple

    35. _______ are rafters that are nailed between hip and valley rafters.

    A. Common jacks
    B. Cripple jacks
    C. Valley jacks
    D. Hip jacks

    36. What is the purpose of purlins in wood frame construction?

    A. To serve as a nailer for roofing
    B. To act as a diagonal brace
    C. To support align joists
    D. To serve as trimmer for openings

    37. What type of roof covering is generally used on flat or nearly flat roofs?

    A. Galvanized iron sheets
    B. Asphalt shingles
    C. Tile
    D. Built-up

    38. What material provides the weathering surface on a built-up roof?

    A. Asphalt shingles
    B. Aggregate
    C. Roofing felt
    D. Asphalt binder

    39. What is the exterior finish called at and just below the eaves?

    A. Rake
    B. Return
    C. Cornice
    D. Bed

    40. What type of common siding comes in lengths of more than 4 feet and widths of 8 inches or less?

    A. Bevel
    B. Drop
    C. Clapboard

    41. What elements are the two principal parts of a stairway?

    A. Stringers and risers
    B. Treads and risers
    C. Treads and stringers
    D. Stringers and nosing

    42. What type of stairway continues in a straight line from one floor to the next?

    A. Change
    B. Cleat (open-riser)
    C. Platform
    D. Straight-flight

    43. What are the two categories of stairs?

    A. Principal and service
    B. Main and porch
    C. Basement and attic
    D. Front and rear

    44. What stairs extend between floors above the basement and below the attic?

    A. Basement
    B. Porch
    C. Attic
    D. Principal

    45. Which of the following types of stairs is a service stair?

    A. Porch
    B. Principal
    C. Personnel
    D. Equipment 

    46. Finish flooring is broadly divided into _______types.

    A. Resilient and carpet
    B. Wood and concrete
    C. Resilient and wood
    D. Carpet and asphalt tile

    47. What is the primary difference between exterior and interior flush doors?

    A. An exterior flush door always swings to the outside of a building.
    B. Exterior flush doors have a solid core.
    C. Plywood is never used as the outside face of an exterior flush door.
    D. Interior flush doors may be fabricated on the construction site, but exterior flush doors are always factory-assembled.

    48. What are the principal parts of the frame of an inside door?

    A. Head jamb and side jambs only
    B. Head and side jams and head and side casings
    C. Sill, head jamb, and side casings
    D. Sill, side jambs, and head casing

    49. What part of a window forms a frame for the glass?

    A. Casement
    B. Sash
    C. Frame
    D. Finish

    50. What type of window contains several horizontal hinged sashes that open and close together?

    A. Casement
    B. Louver
    C. Jalousie
    D. Double-hung

    51. What type of information does the window schedule provide on construction drawings?

    A. Type of windows
    B. Size of windows
    C. Number of panes of glass for each window
    D. Each of the above

    52. When the figure 6/12 appears on one of the lights in the window schedule, the dimensions of the glass are _____dimensions

    A. Nominal
    B. Rough
    C. Actual
    D. Finish

    53. Which of the following items is/are considered to be the most prominent interior trim?

    A. Inside door casing only
    B. Window casing only
    C. Inside door and window casings
    D. Crown molding

    54. Which of the following items are considered to be hardware?

    A. Sliding door supports
    B. Fastenings for screens
    C. Strike plates
    D. All of the above

    55. Which of the following materials are considered to be finishing hardware?

    A. Fastenings for screens
    B. Sliding door supports
    C. Folding door supports
    D. Hinges

    56. Which of the following material is considered rough hardware?

    A. Special window hardware
    B. Strike plates
    C. Push plates
    D. Escutcheon plates

    57. Nails are classified according to __________.

    A. Use and form
    B. Length and thickness
    C. Composition
    D. Holding power

    58. What type of nail is made from finer wire and has a smaller head than the common nail?

    A. Box
    B. Finishing
    C. Plasterboard
    D. Roofing

    59. What type of nail has two functions: maximum holding power and easy withdrawal?

    A. Roofing
    B. Finishing
    C. Box
    D. Duplex

    60. Which of the following characteristics should be included in a description of a roofing nail?

    A. Round shafted, galvanized, short body, large head
    B. Square shafted, galvanized steel, long body, medium-sized head
    C. Specially hardened steel, noncorrosive
    D. Triangular shafted, non-galvanized

    61. What type of nail usually has a grooved or spiraled body?

    A. Plasterboard
    B. Concrete
    C. Masonry
    D. Roofing

    62. What symbol indicated a penny when used to describe the length of wire nails?

    A. a
    B. b
    C. c
    D. d

    63. What designation(s) expresses the thickness of a wire nail?

    A. Number only
    B. Letter only
    C. Both number and letter
    D. Size

    64. What designation expresses a nail longer than 6 inches?

    A. Roofing
    B. Spike
    C. Concrete
    D. Plasterboard

    65. What factors designate the description of a wood screw?

    A. Type of head and material
    B. Length and pitch
    C. Type of thread and body diameter
    D. Length and body diameter

    66. What factors designate the size of a wood screw?

    A. Type of head and material
    B. Length and pitch
    C. Type of thread and body diameter
    D. Length and body diameter 

    67. What type of screw should be used when ordinary wood screws are too short or too light, or where spikes do NOT hold securely?

    A. Lag bolt
    B. Special purpose
    C. General purpose
    D. Thread-cutting

    68. What type of screw is self-tapping?

    A. Wood
    B. Sheet metal
    C. Lag
    D. Brass

    69. Sheet metal screws can fasten metal up to _______ thickness.

    A. 28 gauge
    B. 30 gauge
    C. 32 gauge
    D. 34 gauge

    70. What type of screws are used to fasten metals up to one-fourth inch thick?

    A. Sheet metal
    B. Thread-cutting
    C. Lag
    D. Flathead brass

    71. What type of bolts, because of their lack of strength, are used only for fastening light pieces?

    A. Carriage
    B. Machine
    C. Stove
    D. Expansion

    72. Which of the following types of bolts should be used to fasten load-bearing members?

    A. Lag
    B. Expansion
    C. Stove
    D. Carriage

    73. What type of bolt has a square section below the head that embeds into the wood to keep the bolt from turning?

    A. Carriage
    B. Expansion
    C. Machine
    D. Stove

    74. What type of bolt is used to provide anchorage in a material or position when a threaded fastener will not function?

    A. Carriage
    B. Expansion
    C. Machine
    D. Stove


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