BORING AND CLAMPING TOOLS

Boring and clamping tools are used to create holes in material and hold materials together. They include drills, reamers, vises, and clamps. In this chapter, you will learn about different types of boring and clamping tools and their uses. You will also learn how to select the right tool for the job, use and read various types of tools, and provide the proper care of boring and clamping tools to keep them in good working condition.

When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. Identify the different types of boring tools.
  2. Determine the proper uses of boring tools.
  3. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to boring tools.
  4. Identify the different types of clamping tools.
  5. Determine the proper uses of clamping tools.
  6. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to clamping tools.

Contents

Manual Drills

Reamers

Vises

Clamps

Review Questions


MANUAL DRILLS

Types and Uses

There are a number of hand drills available to create holes in wood. They include augers, push drills, and hand drills.

Auger


Parts of an auger

The auger is also known as a bit brace; it is used to drill holes in wood and, with a screwdriver bit, remove and install screws. The drill is made up of the following parts: head, crank, crank handle, ratchet mechanism, and chuck. The chuck holds drill bits that have either square or hex shanks. The direction ratchet keeps the tool turning in one direction. You apply pressure to the head, which is mounted on ball bearings so it can turn freely. You rotate the handle clockwise to create the drilling action.

Push Drill

The push drill is used to drill holes in wood. You push down on the handle, causing the bit to rotate clockwise and cut the hole in the wood. When you release the pressure, the handle springs up and the bit rotates counterclockwise, clearing the bit as it comes out of the wood.

Hand Drill


Parts of a hand drill

The hand drill is used to drill holes in wood when you want total control of the drill, particularly in materials that tend to split. The hand drill is made up of the following parts: handle, shaft, pinion gears, crank, and a drill chuck. The handle provides a storage area for drill bits. You hold the handle and turn the crank, which turns the pinion gears on the shaft. This amplifies the circular motion of the crank into circular motion of the drill chuck and drives the bit into the wood.

Using a Brace Drill

Note

The following procedure is for a fixed bit size ranging from 1/4 to 1 inch diameter maximum.

The following steps describe how to use a brace drill properly:


Figure 1 — Insert the drill bit.


Figure 2 — Center the drill bit over the mark

  1. Mark the location to be drilled with a pencil.
  2. Open the chuck and insert a drill bit between the jaws (Figure 1).
  3. Tighten the chuck to secure the bit.
  4. Center the bit over pencil mark (Figure 2).
Note

The ratchet mechanism may have to be set.

  1. Push down on the head and turn the crank until bit goes through the board.
  2. Reverse the ratchet mechanism, then turn crank and pull up on head to remove the drill bit from the board.
  3. Open the chuck and remove the drill bit.
  4. Close the chuck.

Using an Expansive Bit

Note

Expansive bits are available in two sizes, one that expands from 5/8 inch to 1 3/4 inches and the other from 7/8 to 3 inches.

The following steps describe how to use an expansive bit properly:
Figure 3 — Using an expansive bit.

  1. Loosen retaining screw (Figure 3).
  2. Slide adjustable blade to the desired width using built-in scale or a 6 inch machinist rule.
  3. Tighten retaining screw.
  4. Mark the location to be drilled with a pencil.
  5. Open the chuck and insert the expansive bit between the jaws as shown in Figure 1
  6. Tighten the chuck to secure the bit.
  7. Center the bit over pencil mark as shown in Figure 2.
  8. Push down on the head and turn the crank until bit goes through the board.
  9. Reverse the ratchet mechanism, then turn crank and pull up on head to remove the drill bit.
Notes

The ratchet mechanism may have to be set.

  1. Open the chuck and remove the expansive bit.
  2. Close the chuck.

 Care of Manual Drills

Use these guidelines when working with hand drills:

 

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REAMERS

Types and Uses

Reamers are used to enlarge and true a hole. They are also used to remove burrs from the inside diameters of pipes and drilled holes. The reamer consists of three parts, the body, the shank, and the blades. The shank has a square tang to allow the reamer to be held with a wrench for turning.

Solid Straight-Hole Reamer


Solid straight-hole reamer.

A solid straight-hole reamer is made of one solid piece of high-speed steel having a straight shank and straight or spiral flutes. The cutting edges, or lands, between the flutes are usually evenly spaced. Some have irregularly spaced lands to prevent the tool from chattering. Reamers come in sizes from 1/16 inch to 3 inch diameters. Reamers are also available in sets containing 25 reamers in 1/64 inch increments from 1/8 inch to 1/2 inch. The sets may be mixed to include straight and taper pin reamers. Each reamer size is stamped on the shank of the tool. Solid straight-hole reamers are used for most work since they are the most accurate and the most rugged of the straight-hole reamers.


Solid Taper-Pin Reamer

Solid taper-pin reamers are used to finish tapered holes for the insertion of tapered pins or other tapered parts. They are made with a standard taper of 1/4 inch per foot. Solid taper-pin reamers come with straight or spiral flutes. Sizes range from 00000 to 14, with the diameter at the large end ranging from 0.0984 to 1.5412 inches. They also come in sets of 10, sizes 000 to 7, and a set of 11, sizes 0 to 10. They are also included in mixed sets of straight and taper-pin reamers.

Expansion Reamer

Expansion reamers are adjustable, and their sizes may be changed by 1/8 inch for a 1 inch reamer and 5/16 inch for a 2 inch reamer. The expansion reamer is made of carbon steel and has longitudinal cuts in some of its flutes. It is hollowed out and threaded to receive a tapered screw plug. The diameter of the reamer is changed by screwing in or backing out the screw plug. The standard sizes range from 1/4 inch to 1 inch, and produces a hole 1/32 inch larger than the nominal size. A 1/4 inch expansion reamer will enlarge the hole to a 9/32 inch hole, and so on. It is used for general purposes and is considered the most practical reamer.

Adjustable Blade Reamer

The blades of an adjustable reamer are separate from the body and are fitted into grooves in the threaded shank of the tool. Adjusting nuts located below and above the blades control the diameter of the reamer. The reamers come with straight or spiral flutes, with or without a floating pilot on solid mandrels, and in several sizes. Adjustable reamers are also available in sets. They are used to enlarge drilled holes to an exact true size using a series of small cuts rather than one deep cut.

Pipe Reamer

Pipe reamers are made of carbon steel. They are tapered with straight or spiral flutes. They come in three sizes, 1/8 inch to 1 inch pipe capacity, 1/4 to 1 1/4 inch pipe capacity, and 1/4 inch to 2 inch pipe capacity. Most pipe reamers are designed to receive a T-handle. Others have a tapered square shank for use with a brace, or a round shank for use with a hand drill. They are used to remove burrs from the inside diameters of pipe and drilled holes.

Using a Solid Straight-Hole Reamer

Caution

Do not turn the wrench counterclockwise at any time. To do so will cause the reamer to become dull.

The following steps describe how to use a straight-hole reamer properly:

  1. Secure the work in a vise so that the hole to be reamed is perpendicular to the top of the vise jaws (Figure 4).

Figure 4 — Using a straight-hole reamer.

  1.  Using a tap wrench, tighten the handle to the square end of the reamer shank.
  2. Position the reamer at the top of the hole. Turn the wrench clockwise very slowly until the reamer is centered in the hole. Straight-hole reamers have a slight taper at the end so they will fit into the hole easily.
  3. Turn the wrench clockwise with a steady, firm pressure until the reamer has been turned in the hole. When reaming steel, use cutting oil or machine oil to lubricate the tool. When reaming soft iron, do not lubricate the tool. Turning the wrench too quickly or too slowly will cause the reamer to chatter, producing an unevenly reamed hole.
  4. Remove the reamer from the hole by turning the wrench clockwise and raising the reamer at the same time.

Care of Reamers

 

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VISES

Types and Uses

Machinist Bench Vise

The bench vise is mounted on a workbench or table, and is used to hold work pieces securely in place between two flat jaws. It is available in stationary or swivel models; the swivel model has a sliding spindle lockdown to hold the vise at different angles. The threaded spindle adjusts the jaw openings when you turn the sliding cross pin handle.

Bench and Pipe Vise

The bench and pipe vise is a dual purpose vise. It has rough jaws and a swivel base similar to the machinist bench vise. However, it also has built-in pipe jaws. Bench and pipe vises are usually bolted to a work bench or table. They are used for holding or clamping heavy objects, holding pipe for cutting and threading, and for forming and shaping metal.

Clamp Base Bench Vise

The clamp base bench vise is a lightweight, portable machinist vise. It is attached to a table or bench with the mounting clamp. It has rough jaws for holding material and may have a swivel base. Clamp base bench vises are used to hold light materials or in areas where a heavier vise is not available.

Pipe Vise

The pipe vise  is a special purpose vise designed to hold round stock. It has hinged jaws, which allow the user to position the work and then lock it in place. Some pipe vises have a section of chain instead of jaws for holding the pipe. Pipe vises are usually bench mounted. They are used to hold pipe from 1/8 to 8 inches in diameter while cutting or threading.

Machine Table Vise

The machine table vise is a special purpose vise that may be bolted to a drill press, lathe, or table. It is available in two sizes, one having a 3 1/2 inch jaw width and a 3 inch jaw opening, and the other having a 6 inch jaw width and a 6 inch jaw opening. Machine table vises are used to hold small pieces of wood or metal for machining or drilling operations.

Pin Vise

The pin vise is a special purpose vise that has a knurled metal handle and a chuck. It is designed to hold material from 0 to 0.187 inches in diameter. The pin vise is used to hold files, taps, and small drills during machining operations.

Piston Holding Vise

The piston holding vise is a special purpose vise that can hold engine pistons up to and including 5 1/2 inches in diameter. This vise may be bolted to a bench or table.

Handsaw Filing Vise

The handsaw filing vise is a special purpose vise used for holding handsaws while they are being sharpened. It has jaws between 9 1/2 and 11 inches wide, and an attachment for holding a file at a constant angle.

Using a Machinist Bench Vise

Warning

Make sure the vise is bolted securely to a bench or table and the swivel base is locked.

 

Cautions
  1. Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to hold large work in a small vise.
  2. Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect soft material when clamping.

The following steps describe how to use a machinist bench vise properly:

  1. Open jaws of vise wide enough to allow you to insert the object you want to clamp.
  2. Insert the object to be clamped between vise jaws and tighten handle (Figure 5).
Note

When holding hard material in vise jaws tightened by hand, give the vise handle a sharp rap for final tightening.

  1. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should not be so tight that they mar the finish. A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished surfaces.


Figure 5 — Using a machinist bench vise

Using a Pipe Vise

Warning

Pipe ends are extremely sharp. Handle with care.

 

Caution

Do not apply too much pressure to copper or aluminum pipe.

The following steps describe how to use a pipe vise properly:

  1. Open the pipe-holding jaws by turning the threaded T-handle.
  2. Lift locking device and open pipe vise.
  3. Insert section of pipe in vise and close pipe vise, by pushing locking device against lip on the side of the lower holding jaw (Figure 6).
  4. Insert locking bolt through aligned holes of upper and lower lip jaws.
  5. Tighten the pipe holding jaws by turning the threaded T-handle.


Figure 6 — Using a pipe vise.

Care of Vises

 

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CLAMPS

Types and Uses

Clamps are devices for holding work. They come in many sizes based on the maximum opening of the jaw, from 1 to 24 inches. There are many varieties to use for different purposes.

C-Clamps

The C-clamp is the most common type of clamp, with a C-shaped frame made of forged steel or cast iron. It is used mostly to clamp metalwork. An adjustable screw changes the jaw opening, controlled by turning a wing nut or a sliding cross-pin handle. The size of the C-clamp identifies its jaw capacity, which is the largest object the frame can accommodate when the screw is fully extended. The depth of the throat is another important measure which determines how far in from the edge of the material the clamp can be placed.

Hand Screw (Cabinetmaker’s) Clamp

The hand screw clamp is made up of two hardwood clamping jaws that you adjust to the work by tightening two opposing steel screw spindles. You can adjust the jaws to a variety of angles and diameters up to 10 inches. The hand screw clamp is used to clamp wood, metal, plastic, and fabric.

Locking C-Clamp

The locking C-clamp  has wide-opening jaws that give you the versatility to clamp a variety of shapes. You turn the screw to adjust the pressure and fit the work, and it stays adjusted for repetitive use. A guarded release trigger quickly unlocks the clamp and protects your work from accidental release.

Spring Clamp

The spring clamp is a versatile clamp designed for use with thin materials. It has two metal jaws with a steel spring giving it 1, 2, or 3 inch jaw openings. It can hold round or odd-shaped objects. Use spring clamps when you need only moderate pressure.

Bar Clamp

The bar clamp has a clamping device built on a flat steel bar. The size of the largest object that can be held between the bar clamp jaws is determined by the length of the bar. The final clamping load is applied by screw pressure on some types or by squeezing the grips on others. Use the bar clamp to clamp large objects.

Pipe Clamp

A pipe clamp can be mounted to standard threaded or unthreaded pipe. You can clamp from one end or both ends, since you can position the jaws at the ends of the pipe or anywhere along its length. A hardened steel set screw holds the head firmly on the pipe, but you can easily loosen it. Pipe clamps are used to hold boards together while gluing. They can also be quickly converted to use as a spreader.

Web Clamp

The web clamp applies even clamping pressure around irregular shapes or large objects. It uses a spring-loaded locking fixture to hold objects tightly. The web clamp is commonly used on cylinder shapes and to hold chair legs when they’ve been glued. Inspect a web clamp before using it and discard if frayed or cut.

V-Block and Clamp Assembly

The V-block and clamp assembly consists of a V-shaped, hardened steel body to support round, square, or rectangular shaped work. A clamp (or clamps) holds the work firmly in the body groove. V-blocks and clamps are especially used for grinding, milling, or drilling purposes. Various styles and designs of V-blocks and clamps are available depending on application.

Using a Clamp

The following steps describe how to use a clamp properly:

  1. Select a clamp which has an opening about 1 1/2 to 2 inches wider than the material to be clamped.
  2. Open the clamp and place it loosely around the work you are clamping.
  3. Protect the surface of wood you are clamping by placing pads or thin blocks of wood between the wood surface and the clamp.
Cautions

Do not use wrenches or bars to tighten clamps.

  1. Tighten the clamp’s pressure mechanism. Take care not to force the clamp past a snug fit.

Using a Hand Screw Clamp

Cautions

Use the hand screw clamp only on wood. Make sure vise jaws remain parallel to edges of work

The following steps describe how to use a hand screw clamp properly:

  1. Examine material to be clamped and select a clamp that will span across the work.
  2. Keeping the jaws parallel, open the clamp and place the work between the jaws (use rawhide or soft leather to protect highly polished surfaces).
  3. Tighten the operating screws ensuring the clamp jaws remain parallel (Figure 7). Ensure the jaws fit firmly on work (properly clamped work will form a square).


Figure 7 — Using a hand screw clamp.

Care of Clamps

Use these guidelines when you work with clamps:

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Review Questions

1. The auger drill is also known as what type of drill?

A. Bit brace
B. Hand
C. Ratchet handle
D. Speed handle

2. The auger can drill holes and perform which other functions?

A. Remove and install nails
B. Remove and install screws
C. Rip and crosscut wood
D. Torque and loosen nuts

3. You should use which type of drill when you want total control of the drill?

A. Auger
B. Cordless
C. Hand
D. Push

4. When using a hand drill, which of the following statements is true concerning the work piece?

A. Apply a light coat of oil to the surface of the work piece
B. Make sure the work piece is clamped securely
C. Remove the wood shavings with an air hose
D. Ensure the work piece is half the thickness of the drill diameter

5. Before using a manual drill, which of the following items should be placed under the work piece?

A. Dye pack
B. Rag
C. Water hose
D. Piece of scrap material

6. Which of the following tools is used to true a hole?

A. Reamer
B. Auger
C. Hand drill
D. Inside micrometer

7. Solid straight-hole reamers have what type of flutes?

A. Mortise and diamond
B. Mortise and spiral
C. Straight and mortise
D. Straight and spiral

8. By what action is the expansion reamer diameter adjusted?

A. Adjusting the position of the handle
B. Adjusting the screw plug
C. Changing the blade thickness
D. Changing the stiffness of the retaining springs

9. Which of the following purposes are adjustable blade reamers used for?

A. Boring holes in wood, plastics, and other soft materials
B. Enlarging drilled holes to an exact true size using a series of small cuts
C. Removing burrs from the inside diameters of pipe and drill holes
D. Removing burrs from the outside diameter of pipes and drill holes

10. Which of the following purposes are pipe reamers used for?

A. Boring holes in wood, plastics, and other soft materials
B. Enlarging drilled holes to an exact true size using a series of small cuts
C. Removing burrs from the inside diameters of pipe and drill holes
D. Removing burrs from the outside diameter of pipes and drill holes

11. What maximum amount of material can be removed with a reamer, in inches?

A. 0.001
B. 0.002
C. 0.003
D. 0.004

12. For long term storage of reamers, which of the following substances should be applied to the reamer?

A. Ammonium
B. Antifreeze
C. Thin coat of grease
D. Rust-preventative compound

13. What tool is used to hold pieces securely in place between two jaws?

A. Die block
B. Lineman’s pliers
C. Machinist bench vise
D. Web clamp

14. What vise has dual purposes?

A. Bench and pipe vise
B. Machinist bench vise
C. Pin vise
D. Pipe vise

15. What vise holds files, taps, and small drills during machining operations?

A. Bench and pipe vise
B. Machinist bench vise
C. Pin vise
D. Pipe vise

16. What action should be performed on a vise after each use?

A. Clean with a rag
B. Clean with a wire brush
C. Fully open the jaws
D. Touch up the paint

17. If the swivel base is oiled, which of the following occurs?

A. Decreases rust
B. Decreases the holding power
C. Increased the holding power
D. Increases the maneuverability

18. What type of clamp is the most common?

A. C-clamp
B. Hand screw
C. Spring
D. V-block and clamp

19. Which of the following consists of two hardwood clamping jaws?

A. C-clamp
B. Hand screw clamp
C. Spring clamp
D. V-block and clamp

20. What type of clamp has a versatile design used with thin materials?

A. C-clamp
B. Hand screw clamp
C. Spring clamp
D. V-block and clamp

21. Which of the following clamps is also known as a strap or band clamp?

A. Bar
B. Pipe
C. Spring
D. Web

22. When using a clamp, which of the following materials, if anything, should you use to protect the wood surface?

A. Light coat of linseed oil
B. Metal covers on the jaws
C. Pad or thin block
D. Nothing

23. When clamps are stored in drawers, which of the following may result?

A. Damages the clamp
B. Keeps the frame straight
C. Protects the jaws
D. Removes rust

24. What chemical should be applied to wood surfaces of clamps?

A. Grease
B. Linseed oil
C. Nitrogen
D. Rust-preventative compound

 

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Answers to Exercises

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. D
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. B
10. C
11. C
12. D
13. C
14. A
15. C
16. A
17. B
18. A
19. B
20. C
21. D
22. C
23. A
24. B

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Copyright © David L. Heiserman
All Rights Reserved