PORTABLE HAND TOOLS

Portable hand tools are designed for a wide variety of uses, including construction, tree cutting, bridging, or tree clearing. Portable electric hand tools increase production and reduce time and manpower. This unit provides the basic information on portable hand tools. You will be required to operate different types of portable hand tools in the field. You need to understand the safety precautions associated with them. In this unit, you will learn about different types of portable hand tools and their uses. You will also learn how to select the right tool for the job, use various types of portable hand tools, and provide the proper care of the portable hand tools to keep them in good working condition.

When you have completed this unit, you will be able to do the following:

Contents
Major sections of this unit

  1. Power Drills
  2. Electric Saws
  3. Routers
  4. Power Plane
  1. Sanders
  2. Grinders
  3. Power-Actuated Tools

Review Questions

 


POWER DRILLS

Types and Uses

Power Drill

Power drills (Figure 1) have generally replaced hand tools for drilling holes because they are faster and more accurate. With variable speed controls and special clutch drive chucks, they can also be used as electric screwdrivers. More specialized power-driven screwdrivers are also available, which have greatly increased the efficiency of many fastening operations in construction work.

Figure 1 — Power drill.

The two basic designs for portable electric drills are the spade design (Figure 1) for heavy-duty construction and the pistol-grip design (Figure 2) for lighter work. Sizes of power drills are based on the diameter of the largest drill shank that will fit into the chuck of the drill.

Figure 2 — Light-duty power drill.

A right angle drill (Figure 3) is a specialty drill used in plumbing and electrical work. This drill allows you to drill holes at a right angle to the drill body.

Figure 3 — Right angle drill.

Electric Hammer Drill

The electric hammer drill (Figure 4) consists of the housing and a spade or pistol-grip handle. A strong spring inside the housing moves a steel piston back and forth in a pounding motion. The housing muzzle is designed to hold a variety of bits, which give the electric hammer great versatility. Examples of possible uses for this tool are beveling, pounding, digging, and breaking operations.

Figure 4 — Electric hammer drill.

Electric Impact Wrench

The electric impact wrench (Figure 5) consists of a pistol-grip handle on a housing, which contains a motor that energizes the driving anvil inside the muzzle of the housing. Attachments are fastened to the driving anvil by snapping them onto the socket retainer. The portable electric wrench with its accompanying equipment is primarily intended for applying and removing nuts, bolts, and screws. It may also be used to drill and tap wood, metal, plastics, and so forth, and to drive and remove socket head or self-tapping screws.

Figure 5 — Electric impact wrench.

Using Power Drills

Using a Power Drill

Warnings
  • Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly grounded.
  • Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.

 

Note

A firm grip is required to turn chuck key in either direction.

The following steps describe how to use a power drill properly:

  1. Select the proper bit required for the task.
  2. Fit the chuck key into the side adjusting hole between the jaws and the chuck (Figure 6) and turn the key counterclockwise until the chuck opens enough to admit the bit shank.

Figure 6 — Drill chuck and key.

  1. Insert the bit in to the chuck jaws and tighten securely by turning the chuck key clockwise. Remove the chuck key and store where the key will not get lost.
  2. Before drilling, ensure the work is stationary or firmly secured.
  3. Use a center punch or awl to make a small prick point in the spot where the hole will be made. (The prick point will prevent the drill bit from bouncing or slipping away from the spot where the hole is to be drilled.)
  4. Connect the electric drill to the power source.
  5. Place the drill bit on the marked spot (Figure 7) and depress the trigger switch. Begin drilling, exerting firm but even pressure to keep the bit cutting. Withdraw the bit frequently from the work to clean chips from the bit flutes and to allow the bit to cool.

Figure 7 — Place the drill bit on the marked spot.

  1. Ease up on the drill pressure as the bit approaches the other side of the work surface. 
  2. After completing the hole, carefully withdraw the rotating drill bit to prevent binding or breaking and release trigger switch.

Using an Electric Hammer Drill

Caution

To prevent unnecessary wear of the precision parts and components, place the bit against work surface before operating the switch.

 

Warnings
  • Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly grounded.
  • Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
  • The electric hammer produces hazardous noise levels when in operation. Always wear proper hearing protection to avoid possible hearing loss.

The following steps describe how to use an electric hammer drill properly:

  1. Select the correct attachment required for the task.
  2. Insert the attachment into the bit retainer and secure in place with the locking collar.
  3. Connect the hammer to the power source and depress the handle trigger (Figure 8).

Figure 8 — Use an electric hammer drill.

  1. Apply only enough pressure to keep the bit in contact with the working surface.
  2. Occasionally stop the hammer and clear dust or other residue from the working surface.

Using an Electric Impact Wrench

Warnings
  • Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly grounded.
  • Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
  • Do not use standard sockets with any impact tool. Standard sockets can shatter, causing serious injury and/or damage to personnel and the equipment.

The following steps describe how to test the function of and use an electric impact wrench properly. Before using, ensure the electric impact wrench and its reversible features are functioning properly. Test and use the impact wrench in the following manner:

  1. Connect the cord to the power source.
  2. Depress the trigger in the forward direction and note the rotating direction of the driving anvil.
  3. Stop the wrench and depress the trigger in the reverse direction.
  4. Start the wrench again, making sure the driving anvil is now rotating in the opposite direction.
  5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 several times to verify the wrench is reversing consistently.
  6. Disconnect the impact wrench from the power source.
  7. Replace the wrench if it does not perform in the above manner.
  8. After a successful functional test, select the proper attachment and secure it in place on the driving anvil (Figure 9).

Figure 9 — Select the proper attachment.

  1. Set the ratchet switch in the desired position for the anvil rotation required. Reconnect the impact wrench to the power source.
  2. Using both hands, place the impact wrench on the work surface (Figure  10) and depress the trigger.

Figure 10 — Place the tool on the work surface.

  1. Continue operation until work is completed. Release the trigger to stop the wrench. 

Care of Power Drills

Use the following guidelines when working with portable power drills:

 

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ELECTRIC SAWS

Types and Uses

Circular Saw

The portable electric circular saw is used chiefly as a great labor-saving device in sawing wood framing members on the job. The size of a circular saw is determined by the diameter of the largest blade it can use. The most commonly used circular saws are the 7 1 /4- and 8 1 /4-inch saws. There are two different types of circular saws: the side drive, shown in Figure  11, and the worm drive, shown in Figure 12.

Figure 11 — Side drive circular saw.


Figure 12 — Worm drive circular saw.

Circular saws can use many different types of cutting blades, some of which are shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13 — Circular saw blades.

 Combination crosscut and rip blades—combination blades are all-purpose blades for cutting thick and thin hardwoods and softwoods, both with or across the grain. They can also be used to cut plywood and hardboard.

Crosscut Blades—crosscut blades have fine teeth that cut smoothly across the grain of both hardwood and softwood. These blades can be used for plywood, veneers, and hardboard.

Rip Blades—rip blades have bigger teeth than combination blades and should be used only to cut with the grain. A rip fence or guide will help you make an accurate cut with this type of blade.

Hollow-Ground Blades—hollow-ground blades have no set. They make the smoothest cuts on thick or thin stock. Wood cut with these blades requires little or no sanding.

Abrasive Blades—abrasive blades are used for cutting metal, masonry, and plastics. These blades are particularly useful for scoring bricks so they can be easily split.

Make sure that the abrasive blade you choose has a revolution per minute rating at or above the revolution per minute rating of the saw. If the blade revolution per minute rating is lower than the revolution per minute rating of the saw, the blade can shatter or break, possibly causing injury or damage.

Saber Saw

The saber saw (Figure 14), is a power-driven jigsaw that cuts smooth and decorative curves in wood and light metal. Most saber saws are light-duty machines and are not designed for extremely fast cutting.

Figure 14 — Saber saw.

There are several different, easily interchangeable blades (Figure 15) designed to operate in the saber saw. Some blades are designed for cutting wood and some for cutting metal.

Figure 15 — Saber saw blades.

The best way to learn how to handle this type of tool is to use it. Before trying to do a finished job with the saber saw, clamp down a piece of scrap plywood and draw some curved as well as straight lines to follow. You will develop your own way of gripping the tool, which will be affected somewhat by the particular tool you are using. On some tools, for example, you will find guiding easier if you apply some downward pressure on the tool as you move it forward. If you do not use a firm grip, the tool will tend to vibrate excessively and roughen the cut. Do not force the cutting faster than the design of the blade allows, or you will break the blade.

You can make a pocket cut with a saber saw just like you can with a circular saw, although you need to drill a starter hole to begin work. A saber saw can also make bevel-angle and curve cuts.

Reciprocating Saw

The reciprocating saw (Figure 16) is a heavy-duty power tool used for a variety of woodworking maintenance work, remodeling, and roughing-in jobs. You can use it to cut rectangular or curved openings (along straight or curved lines) and to cut flush. Blades for reciprocating saws are made in a great variety of sizes and shapes. They vary in length from 2 1/2 to 12 inches and are made of high-speed steel or carbon steel. They have cutting edges similar to those shown in Figure 15.

Figure 16 — Reciprocating saw.

Electric Chain Saw

The electrically driven chain saw (Figure 17) is a portable power saw with the teeth arranged on a flexible steel chainlike belt. It has a pistol-like grip and bar frame above the motor housing for holding and guiding. Unlike the gasoline-powered chain saw, the electric chain saw is designed for lighter work, such as tree trimming and cutting small logs and timber.

Figure 17 — Electric chain saw.

Using Portable Electric Saws

Using a Circular Saw

The versatility of the circular saw is shown in Figure 18. To make an accurate ripping cut (Figure 18, view A), set the ripping guide a distance away from the saw equal to the width of the strip to be ripped off. Then place it against the edge of the piece as a guide for the saw. To make a bevel angle cut up to 45 degrees (Figure 18, view B), just set the bevel adjustment knob to the angle you want and cut down the line. To make a pocket cut (a square cut in the middle of a piece of material) (Figure 18, views C and D), retract the lower guard back and tilt the saw so that it rests on the front of the base. Lower the rear of the saw into the material until it goes all the way through the wood. Then, follow your layout line.

Figure 18 — Different ways to use a circular saw.

Using a Reciprocating Saw

Before operating this saw, be sure you are using a blade that is right for the job. The manufacturer’s instruction manual shows the proper saw blade to use for a particular material. The blade must be pushed securely into the opening provided. Rock it slightly to ensure a correct fit, and then tighten the setscrew.

To start a cut, place the saw blade near the material to be cut. Then, start the motor and move the blade into the material. Keep the cutting pressure constant, but do not overload the saw motor. Never reach underneath the material being cut.

Using an Electric Chain Saw

Warnings
  • Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly grounded.
  • Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
  • The electric chain saw produces hazardous noise levels when in operation. Always wear proper hearing protection to avoid hearing loss.

The following steps describe how to use an electric chain saw properly:

  1. Verify the power source is disconnected.
  2. Before using, ensure that the chain teeth are sharp, undamaged, and in the proper position (Figure 19) (the saw should cut in the direction of arrow).

Figure 19 — Ensure the teeth are in the proper position.

Figure 20 — Proper hand position.

  1. Ensure that the work is stationary and well secured to prevent slippage or movement.
  2. Connect the chain saw to the power source.
  3. Stand to the left of the saw with your left hand on the front handle and your right hand on the rear handle, as shown in Figure 20.
Note

Reverse the position of the stance and hands if left-handed.

  1.  With your weight evenly distributed, depress trigger to start the saw.
Warning

Keep the nose of the guide bar from contacting logs, branches, the ground, or other obstructions. This contact can cause kickback, which is a quick and dangerous upward movement of the guide bar and saw chain.

 

Caution

The saw chain should be at maximum speed before contacting working surface.

  1. Cut with the spike bar set firmly against the wood and apply light pressure.
  2. Continue to guide the chain saw through the work until the cut is completed.

Care of Portable Electric Saws

Care of Circular Saws

Observe the following safety precautions when operating a circular saw:

Care of Saber Saws

Observe the following safety precautions when operating the saber saw:

Care of Reciprocating Saws

Observe the following safety precautions when operating a reciprocating saw:

Care of Electric Chain Saws

Observe the following safety precautions when operating an electric chain saw:

 

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ROUTERS

Figure 21 — Portable router with edge guide.

The router (Figure 21) is a versatile portable power tool that can be used free hand or with jigs and attachments. It consists of a motor containing a chuck into which the router bits are attached. The motor slides into the base in a vertical position. By means of the depth adjustment ring, easy regulation of the depth of a cut is possible. Routers vary in size from 1 /4 to 2 1 /2 horsepower, and the motor speed varies from 18,000 to 27,000 revolutions per minute.

One of the most practical accessories for the router is the edge guide. It is used to guide the router in a straight line along the edge of the board. The edge guide is particularly useful for cutting grooves on long pieces of lumber. The two rods on the edge guide slip into the two holes provided on the router base. The edge guide can be adjusted to move in or out along the two rods to obtain the desired lateral depth cut.

There are two classifications of router bits: built-in (or shank-type) and screw-type. Built-in bits fit into the chuck of the router. Screw-type bits have a threaded hole through the center of the cutting head, which allows the cutting head to be screwed to the shank. A few of the most common router bits are shown in Figure 22.

Figure 22 — Common router bits.

Care of Routers

Observe the following safety precautions when operating a router:

 

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POWER PLANE

The portable electric power plane (Figure 23) is widely used for trimming panels, doors, frames, and so forth. It is a precision tool capable of exact cutting depth up to 3 /16 inch on some of the heavier models. The maximum safe depth of cut on any model is 3 /32 inch in any one pass. The power plane is a high-speed motor that drives a cutter bar, containing either straight or spiral blades, at high speed.

Figure 23 — Portable power plane.

Using a Power Plane

Operating the power plane is a matter of setting the depth of cut and passing the plane over the work. The following steps describe how to use a power plane properly:

  1. Make careful measurements of the piece and where it is to fit, and determine how much material has to be removed.
  2. The stock being planed should be held in a vise, clamped to the edge of a bench, or otherwise firmly held.
  3. Check the smoothness and straightness of all the edges.
  4. If a smoothing cut is desired, make that cut first and then recheck the dimensions. Make as many passes as necessary with the plane to reach the desired dimensions. Check frequently so you do not remove too much material. The greater the depth of the cut, the more slowly you must feed the tool into the work. Feed pressure should be enough to keep the tool cutting, but not so much as to slow it down excessively.
  5. Keep wood chips off the work because they can mar the surface of the stock as the tool passes over them.
  6. Keep your hands away from the cutter head or blades when a cut is finished.

The L-shaped base, or fence, of the plane should be pressed snugly against the work when planing, assuring that the edge will be cut square. For bevel cuts, loosen the setscrew on the base, set the base at the desired bevel, and then retighten the setscrew.

Care of Power Planes

Observe the following safety precautions when operating a portable power plane:

• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.

• Make sure that the plane is turned off before plugging it in.

• Make sure you disconnect the plug before making any adjustments.

• Always clamp your work securely in the best position to perform the planing.

• Use both hands to operate the power plane.

• Make sure you disconnect the power cord when you are finished planing.

 

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SANDERS

Types and Uses

There are three types of portable sanders: belt, disk, and finish.

Belt Sander

When using a belt sander (Figure 24), be careful not to gouge the wood. The size of a belt sander is usually identified by the width of its sanding belt. Belt widths on heavier duty models are usually 3 or 4 inches. Depending on the make and model, belt lengths vary from 21 to 27 inches. Different grades of abrasives are available.

Figure 24 — Belt sander.

Figure 25 — Disk sander.

Disk Sander

 The disk sander (Figure 25) is a useful tool for removing old finish, paint, and varnish from siding, wood flooring, and concrete. For best results with a disk sander, tip the machine lightly with just enough pressure to bend the disk. Use a long, sweeping motion, back and forth, advancing along the surface. When using a disk sander, always operate it with both hands.

Finish Sander

Finish sanders are used for light and fine sanding. Two kinds of finish sanders are available. The orbital sander (Figure 26) operates with an orbital or circular motion. The oscillating sander (Figure  27) has a back-and-forth movement. Finish sanders use regular abrasive paper (sandpaper) cut to size from full sheets.

Figure 26 — Orbital sander.

Figure 27 — Oscillating sander.

Using Sanders

Using a Portable Sander

Warnings
  1. Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
  2. Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly grounded.
  3. The electric sander produces hazardous noise levels when in operation. Always wear proper hearing protection to avoid hearing loss.

The following steps describe how to use an electric sander properly:

  1. Select the proper attachment and secure it to the spindle (Figure 28) by depressing locking button and tightening spindle as shown.

Figure 28 — Secure the proper attachment to the spindle.

  1. Make sure the work surface is secured to prevent movement.
  2. Connect the sander to the power source. Depress the switch on the sander so that the attachment is turning before placing it on the work surface
Caution

Using excessive pressure will slow up the sanding action, clog the disk, and cause motor to overheat.

  1. With one hand on each handle, begin sweeping the sander back and forth across the work surface, as illustrated in Figure 29.

Figure 29 — Use a sweeping motion.

  1. During operation, tilt the sander slightly so the entire disk does not contact the work surface.
  2. Brush or clean the sanding dirt from the work surface frequently.
  3. When finished, lift the sander from the work surface before turning off the switch.

Care of Portable Sanders

Observe the following safety tips when operating portable sanders:

 

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GRINDERS

Types and Uses

Portable Grinder

Figure 30 — Portable grinder.

The most useful power tool for surface preparations is the portable grinder, as shown in Figure 30. This tool usually comes equipped with a grinding wheel that, for wire brushing purposes, is replaced by either the rotary wheel wire brush or the rotary cup wire brush. The light-duty brushes are made of crimped wire, and the heavy-duty brushes are made of tufts of wire formed by twisting together several strands of wire.

Rotary Scaling Tool

Figure 31 — Rotary scaling and chipping tool.

A rotary scaling and chipping tool (Figure 31), sometimes called a deck crawler, is powered electrically and has a bundle of cutters (or chippers) mounted on either side. In use, it is pushed along the surface to be scaled, with the rotating cutters doing the work. Replacement bundles of cutters are available.

Rotary scalers are used to remove rust, scale, and old paint from metallic and masonry surfaces. You must be especially careful when using these tools because they will "chew" up anything in their path. Avoid getting the power line or any part of your body in their way.

Using a Portable Grinder

Before operating a portable grinder, be sure you are using the proper disk. The manufacturer’s instruction manual shows the proper disk to use for grinding or cutting. The blade must be secured on the spindle. Make sure the work surface is secured to prevent movement.

To start grinding, hold the grinder firmly with both hands and place the disk near the working area. Start the motor and allow the grinder to reach the operating speed. Move the grinder across the work area, applying light pressure to prevent overheating the work and the disk. When you have finished grinding, lift the grinder off the surface of the work slowly.

Care of Portable Grinders

Observe the following safety tips when operating portable grinders:

 

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POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS

Powder-actuated tools, also known as direct fastening tools (Figure 32), are used in construction to join materials to hard substrates, such as concrete and steel. Each of these tools holds a charge of gunpowder, which is ignited and blows the fastener into place.

Figure 32 — Powder-actuated tools.

Powder-actuated tools come in either low- or high-velocity types. Low-velocity tools introduce a piston into the chamber. The propellant acts on the piston, which then drives the fastener into the substrate. A powder-actuated tool is considered to be low velocity if the average test velocity of the fastener does not exceed 492 feet per second.

In high-velocity tools, which are now illegal to manufacture and/or sell in the United States, the propellant acts directly on the fastener, very similar to how a firearm works. Although high-velocity tools are now illegal to manufacture and sell, some that were made decades ago are still in use in the shipbuilding and steel industries.

Powder-actuated fasteners are usually nails made of high-quality, hardened steel, although there are many specialized fasteners designed for specific applications in the construction and manufacturing industries. Powder-actuated fastening is a unique and very cost-efficient method used in a variety of construction situations, from home building to large urban structures.

Powder-actuated technology was developed for commercial use during the Second World War, when high-velocity fastening systems were used to temporarily repair damage to ships. In the case of hull breach, these tools are used to fasten a plate of steel over the damaged area.

Care of Powder-Actuated Tools

Powder-actuated tools are very dangerous, and it is critically important that they are used properly and safely. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires safety training be completed by all users before they work with powder-actuated tools.

A summary of OSHA requirements follows:

The Powder Actuated Tool Manufacturers' Institute, Inc. (PATMI) is an association that provides a common industry voice for manufacturers of powder-actuated fastening systems. With operator safety as the primary goal of the organization, PATMI stresses training, certification, and safety awareness.

 

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Review Questions

1. Portable power drills have replaced hand drills because of an increase in which of the following characteristics?

A. Speed and leverage
B. Speed and accuracy
C. Leverage and versatility
D. Accuracy and leverage

2. A heavy-duty construction drill has what handle design?

A. Hook-and-knob
B. Knob-and-tooth
C. Pistol-grip
D. Spade

3. What type of drill is used in plumbing and electrical work?

A. Brace
B. Hammer
C. Impact wrench
D. Right angle

4. What type of drill is used in beveling, pounding, digging, and breaking operations?

A. Brace
B. Hammer
C. Impact wrench
D. Right angle

5. Before using a power drill, you should inspect the power cord for what condition?

A. Exposed loose wires
B. Prong adapter
C. Proper length
D. Proper thickness

6. When using a power drill, what type of pressure should you apply to accommodate different kinds of stock?

A. Excessive
B. Moderate
C. Steady
D. Varied

7. When drilling a deep hole, what action, if any, should you take to clean the drill bit?

A. Apply extra pressure to the back of the drill
B. Withdraw the drill and wipe with a rag
C. Withdraw the drill several times
D. Nothing; drill bits are self-cleaning

8. What tool is used as a labor-saving device in sawing wood framing members on the job?

A. Circular saw
B. Electric chain saw
C. Router
D. Shaper

9. What type of saw cuts smooth and decorative curves in wood and light metal?

A. Circular
B. Electric chain
C. Reciprocating
D. Saber

10.What type of saw cuts rectangular or curved openings and to cut flush?

A. Circular
B. Electric chain
C. Reciprocating
D. Saber

11.What type of saw has teeth on a flexible steel chainlike belt?

A. Circular
B. Electric chain
C. Reciprocating
D. Saber

12.The electric chain saw is designed to cut which of the following materials?

A. Cement
B. Grass
C. Metal pipe
D. Small logs

13.The circular saw can be used to make which of the following cuts?

A. Decorative
B. Flush
C. Ripping
D. Tree trimming

14.The circular saw can cut a beveled angle up to a maximum of how many degrees?

A. 15
B. 30
C. 45
D. 60

15.When using a reciprocating saw, you should place the saw blade at what position to the material before starting the motor?

A. Near it
B. Away from it
C. Beside the motor
D. On top of the motor

16.While using an electric chain saw, at what position to the saw should you stand if you are righthanded?

A. To the left
B. To the right
C. Directly above
D. Directly behind

17.What personal protective equipment should you wear while operating a circular saw?

A. Apron
B. Back brace
C. Dust mask
D. Goggles

18.Before making any adjustments to a circular saw, what action should you take first?

A. Clean the saw
B. Clean the shop
C. Disconnect the power source
D. Inspect the blade

19.Before working with a saber saw, you should remove rings, watches, and what other item?

A. Bracelets
B. Boots
C. Goggles
D. Hats

20.When using a reciprocating saw, you should avoid cutting which of the following items?

A. Copper piping
B. Electrical wires
C. Metal sheeting
D. Wood studs

21.The router is a versatile tool that can be used in which manner?

A. As a saber saw
B. As a scraper
C. Free hand
D. Hands free with a pattern

22.The router speed varies from 18,000 to what number of revolutions per minute?

A. 2,700
B. 7,200
C. 27,000
D. 72,000

23.What router accessory is one of the most practical?

A. Depth adjusting ring
B. Edge guide
C. Interchangeable chucks
D. Screw type bits

24.The power plane is widely used for trimming panels, doors, and what other item?

A. Frames
B. Sheet metal
C. Tree limbs
D. Windows

25.The portable power plane has what maximum safe cutting depth, in inches?

 A. 1/32
B. 1/16
C. 3/32
D. 3/16

26. If wood chips are left on the work surface while a power plane is being used, what result will occur to the surface of the stock?

A. Marring
B. Polishing
C. Sanding
D. Waxing

27.Portable sanders are available in which of the following types?

A. Belt, disk, and cloth
B. Belt, disk, and finish
C. Cloth, flap, and finish
D. Cloth, flap, and high-speed

28.On a heavy-duty belt sander, the belt is usually what minimum width, in inches?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

29.What type of sander is used for removing old finish, paint, and varnish from siding, wood flooring, and concrete?

A. Belt
B. Disk
C. Orbital finish
D. Oscillating finish

30.Finish sanders operate in which of the following types of motion?

A. Orbital and oscillating
B. Orbital and pounding
C. Oscillating and pounding
D. Pounding and rotary

31.What type of sander uses a back-and-forth movement?

A. Belt
B. Disk
C. Orbital finish
D. Oscillating finish

32.What tool is the most useful for surface preparations?

 A. Drill
B. Grinder
C. Router
D. Sander

33.The portable grinder comes equipped with which of the following items?

A. Grinding wheel and wire brush
B. Grinding wheel and paint brush
C. Paint brush and flap brush
D. Wire brush and sanding pad

34.What is the rotary scaling and chipping tool sometimes called?

A. Deck chipper
B. Deck crawler
C. Needle gun
D. Rotary buffer

35.The rotary scalers are used to remove rust, scale, and what other item from metallic and masonry surfaces?

A. Fresh oil
B. Grease
C. Iron deposits
D. Old paint

36.Which of the following types of tools is direct fastening?

A. Electric impact wrench
B. Powder-actuated tools
C. Power plane
D. Rotary hammer drill

37.Powder-actuated tools are available in what types?

A. Low-velocity and high-velocity
B. Low-velocity and medium-velocity
C. Small-caliber and high-velocity
D. Small-caliber and large-caliber

38.A powder-actuated tool is considered low-velocity if the average test velocity does NOT exceed what maximum, in feet per second?

A. 294
B. 429
C. 492
D. 924

39.At what interval should powder-actuated tools be tested to ensure that the safety devices are working properly?

A. Daily
B. Weekly
C. Monthly
D. Annually

40. Unless a jig is used, powder-actuated fasteners should NOT be driven into materials within what minimum distance of an unsupported edge or corner?

A. 3 centimeters
B. 3 inches
C. 30 centimeters
D. 13 inches

41.Before using a powder-actuated tool, the operator should inspect it to determine that it is clean, that all moving parts move freely, and that what other condition exists?

A. Alignment sights are not bent
B. Barrel is free from obstructions
C. Powder charges are loaded
D. Trigger lock is securely attached

42. In case of a powder-actuated tool misfire, the operator should hold the tool in the operating position for what minimum amount of time, in seconds?

A. 1.5
B. 5.1
C. 15
D. 51

 


Answers to Exercises

1. B
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. C
11. B
12. D
13. C
14. C
15. A
16. A
17. D
18. C
19. A
20. B
21. C
22. C
23. B
24. A
25. C
26. A
27. B
28. C
29. B
30. A
31. D
32. B
33. A
34. B
35. D
36. B
37. A
8. C
39. A
40. B
41. B
42. C

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