Automotive Systems

Formerly Automotive Systems I

automech02.jpg (42077 bytes)

shpslogo.jpg (6992 bytes)

LegalContact Us

Oil Pump

Oil Pump

The oil pump is the heart of the lubricating system; it forces oil out of the oil pan, through the oil filter, galleries, and to the engine bearings. Normally, a gear on the engine camshaft drives the oil pump; however, a cogged belt or a direct connection with the end of the camshaft or crankshaft drives the pump in some cases.

There are two basic types of oil pumps—rotary and gear.

The ROTARY pump (fig. 6-21) has an inner rotor with lobes that match similar shaped depressions in the outer rotor. The inner rotor is off center from the outer rotor.

As the oil pump shaft turns, the inner rotor causes the outer rotor to spin. The eccentric action of the two rotors forms pockets that change size. A large pocket is formed on the inlet side of the pump. As the rotors turn, the oil-filled pocket becomes smaller, as it nears the outlet of the pump. This action squeezes the oil and makes it spurt out under pressure. As the pump spins, this action is repeated over and over to produce a relatively smooth flow of oil.

The GEAR pump (fig. 6-22) consists of two pump gears mounted within a close-fitting housing. A shaft, usually turned by the distributor, crankshaft, or accessory shaft, rotates one of the pump gears. The gear turns the other pump gear that is supported on a short shaft inside the pump housing.

As a safety factor to assure sufficient oil delivery under extreme operating conditions, the oil pump (gear or rotary) is designed to supply a greater amount of oil than is normally required for adequate lubrication. This requires that an oil pressure relief valve be incorporated in the pump to limit maximum oil pressure.

The pressure relief valve is a spring-loaded bypass valve in the oil pump, engine block, or oil filter housing. The valve consists of a small piston, spring, and cylinder. Under normal pressure conditions, the spring holds the relief valve closed. All the oil from the oil pump flows into the oil galleries and to the bearings.

However, under abnormally high oil pressure conditions (cold, thick oil, for example), the pressure relief valve opens. Oil pressure pushes the small piston back in its cylinder by overcoming spring tension. This allows some oil to bypass the main oil galleries and pour back into the oil pan. Most of the oil still flows to the bearings and a preset pressure is maintained. Some pressure relief valves are adjustable. By turning a bolt or screw or by changing spring shim thickness, the Oil on the inlet side of the pump is caught in the gear teeth and carried around the outer wall inside the pump housing. When oil reaches the outlet side of the pump, the gear teeth mesh and seal. Oil caught in each gear tooth is forced into the pocket at the pump outlet and pressure is formed. Oil squirts out of the pump and to the engine bearings. pressure setting can be altered.

Figure 6-21.—Rotor-type oil pump.

Figure 6-22.—Gear-type oil pump.

Published by SweetHaven Publishing Services
Based upon a text provided by the U.S. Navy

Copyright 2001-2004 SweetHaven Publishing Services
All rights reserved